AbstractIn recent years, there are technological growth and the acceleration of industrial development. Although this rapid progress plays a significant role in increasing productivity and economic prosperity, but it also creates new challenges such as health, safety and environment issues. These issues are most evident in developing countries because in order to increase production, regardless of preventive safety principles, standards, working hours, training workers and the use of proper personal protective equipment to workers are addressing excessive pressure on workers. The most people of the world (58%), spend one-third of their life in the workplace. According to the ILO hundreds of thousands of workers are seeing serious injury. Hamalaynyn et al. 98 estimated that about 350,000 fatal occupational accidents and 264 million work-related non-fatal accidents occur. However, economic valuation and pricing of the life is nothing in the last three decades and has been done using new methods. Health, safety and environment management system which is responsible for all matters relating to occupational health, environment and industrial safety of industries. HSE plays a great role in developing of countries through the basics of systematic and various factors related to health, safety and the environment. Applying the principles of HSE management can reduce costs of the employee’s absence, employee's claim and product low quality etc. Implementation of these principles is significant in two aspects: 1. Determining the causes of accidents, diseases and injuries and 2. The impact of these principles on the organization economy. In fact, HSE is an added value for organizations.
Keywords: Economic valuation, HSEMS, Accident costs, Occupational accidents
AbstractProcess industries have always been exposed to fire, explosion and release of chemical materials. To identify and evaluate risk in process industries including oil and gas, there are various methods in which hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is one of the most common methods. To do this, at first all organizational duties and unit activities are identified. Then, the study technique of operation and risk is used as an effective and sys thematic method to identify risk and operating problems and the relevant effects. The identified activities in risk assessment are applied. The results of evaluation of identified risks showed that 6 cases had hazard higher than 15 and it is not acceptable. In terms of risk intensity, the highest frequency of unacceptable risks (4 cases) is observed in “reformer heating chamber”. The analysis of consequence of hazards showed that for 6 hazardous points, independent layers of protection can reduce risk as 100% to target factor (10-5) and safety integrity level is fulfilled completely.
Keywords: Risk assessment, Process industries, LOPA, Risk identification, HAZOP
AbstractNowadays, one of the major issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is data security. Often, data security issue is associated with data aggregation. Using this kind of network in sensitive areas, especially in military environments, without contemplating data security creates main problems. A great number of researches have been conducted in recent years. For example, issues such as coding and use of key and optimum routing based on data security have been taken into consideration. Each method makes use of different parameters that have created strengths and weaknesses. The present research is intended to consider the new ideas presented in this field. Then, to contribute to strengths and weaknesses existing in these methods, we present new ideas. The routine is to study new methods in a valid research. Issues such as data integration, individual or multiple data transfer, the impact of genetic algorithms on data security, encoding and cryptography, secure data aggregation based on fuzzy logic, etc have been discussed thoroughly.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Genetic algorithms, Data security, Aggregation
AbstractNigeria remains a creeping giant today due to the alien and expensive political arrangement that creates the opportunity for elite conspiracy which impoverishes the masses and underdevelops the country. Using descriptive method of data gathering, the study reveals that western democracy cannot work in Nigeria irrespective of how educated the population is because of the deep seated corruption, primordial sentiment, ethnic and religious prejudice as well as lawlessness. A revolutionary leadership is needed to fashion out a workable and effective political system such as Africasian democracy that would suit the Nigerian society and respond to the infrastructural needs of the masses.
Keywords: Dictatorship, Democracy, Rule of law, Africasian, Corruption
AbstractUsing descriptive method of data gathering: qualitative analysis of data from secondary source, the study x-rays the performance of the parliament at the federal and state levels between 1999 and 2016 to see whether it has enhanced good governance in the country. The study implicates corruption as the major reason for the ineffectiveness of this arm of government. It is therefore imperative to alter the nation’s leadership recruitment process such that patriotically-minded and unblemished Nigerians will be attracted into politics and contest for parliamentary positions.
Keywords: Corruption, Jumbo pay, Constituency projects, Impeachment, Oversight functions
AbstractNigerians are increasingly losing hope and confidence in the nation’s judicial system because of the unethical conduct of some judicial rascals. Some judgements have brought embarrassment to the nation. Verdicts are no longer based on facts of law. Through indirect observation: reading newspapers, listening to news on TV, It is established that a large number of judgements delivered were based on rule of men, and status differentials instead of rule of law. It is recommended that the judiciary be urgently overhauled with a view to flushing out the bad eggs or the judicial rascals.
Keywords: Rule of law, Injunction, Judicial precedent, Conflicting verdicts, Rule of men
AbstractThe purpose of this paper to analysis the impact of crude oil on the stock exchange of Pakistan. For this purpose, we have taken the data from 15 years and applied the Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation and taken the results that decrease the value of crude oil have negative impact on the stock exchange of Pakistan. This paper is trying to show that In all over the world oil is known as the more crucial source of energy. Oil prices are known as the biggest need of every country due to this reason prices brings effect on the performance of the country. Now the days the prices of oil as important as the gold prices. The world largest commodity market is known as the crude market. Our paper is also showing that increase in the prices of crude oil is the reason of inflation.
Keywords: Inflation rate, Pearson’s coefficient, Commodity, Crude oil, Crude market
AbstractIn this paper, we have found out the impact of foreign direct investment on the development of Pakistan and Azerbaijan. We have utilized the secondary data for accord results. Our results showed that ratio of foreign direct investment is high in few countries and also low due to terrorism. In 1992, the inflow of foreign direct investment is high at the same year inflows in Azerbaijan were at the poor rate. In the year 2009, the inflows in Pakistan were 245.45 US dollars while in Azerbaijan the inflows were nothing. Our paper is trying to explore that most revenue area in business are education and information technology. On the other side, our paper is also trying to show that foreign direct investment is backbone of the economy. Therefore, we suggested that Pakistan and Azerbaijan should remove such factors which have an impact on the foreign direct investment.
Keywords: FDI, Investment, Pakistan, Azerbaijan
AbstractAmong the work-related risk factors in different industries exposure to chemicals can be mentioned that can have irreparable danger to staff. Therefore, to reduce the risk of exposure to chemicals in the workplace, risk assessment takes place. Thus, the aim of the present study is to study the semi-quantitative risk of chemicals. This study was conducted using semi-quantitative risk assessment method provided by the Singapore Ministry of Labor Health and Safety Unit in Olefin unit of one of the petrochemical industries located in Special Zone Asalooyeh in 2015. Seven chemical substances are identified in this unit that only one of them (14.2 percent) has a high risk level. The results showed that in this unit Sodium hydroxide (caustic) with quantitative risk level of 4.3has the highest risk factor. For this reason, control measures should be used to reduce the risk of exposure to sodium hydroxide.
Keywords: Semi-quantitative risk assessment, Chemicals, Petrochemical industry
AbstractPakistan is famous due to its agriculture sector, due to this reason we have analyzed the different determinants on the progress of FD I. For this purpose, we have taken data from the year 1998 to 2008 an applied the OLS model. We have taken, the results that trade and GDP both have a positive association with the FDI inflows and agriculture sector and Government debt and exchange rate has the negative relationship whereas inflation has the positive relationship. This paper suggests that government should make policies to for the promotion of agriculture sector.
Keywords: Agriculture sector, Progress, OLS, GDP, FDI, Government debt
AbstractMental and physical health of students is important objects of every society, because their health ensures scientific progression and development. The current study was aimed to estimate the anaerobic power in two ways Sargent jump and run 45 meters and the factors influencing them among selected male and female students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. This was an analytical cross-sectional study among 110 students who participated in the study that were selected randomly. To measure anaerobic power, Sargent jump and run 45-meter test was used. In order to analyze the factors affecting anaerobic power test, independent t-test and ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05 was conducted, and also to examine the relationship between two tests Pearson correlation test was used. Data analysis showed that sex, weight, height and body mass index in Sargent jump and sex and weight in 45 meters test are significant. Pearson correlation test between anaerobic power test results are positive and significant relationship (r= 0.83 and P<0.001), respectively. The overall results of this study showed a high correlation between the two methods. Also, variables such as sex and weight in both tests showed significant association in the mean anaerobic power.
Keywords: Physical fitness, Anaerobic power, Sargent jump, Run 45 meters
AbstractIn this paper, we are exploring that terrorism has influenced on the international business. We are showing that day by day business is become vulnerable due to terrorist activates to carry out this research we have used the Random sampling method for checking the reliability of the test we have used the Pearson s product moment. The results is showing that 73% balance of payment, 0.69 foreign exchange rate, 67.13% foreign investors, 84 % financial market. We have formulated the four hypotheses which are proving that there is significant relationship between terrorism and international business. We have provided the some recommendations that there must be very public enlightenment and opportunity of jobs. There should be proper laws against the terrorism activities.
Keywords: Terrorism, Pearsons product moment, Random sampling, Balance of payment, International business
AbstractWith the environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but reducing his energy consumption, one way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in the hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against stress of climate. Buildings should be designed according to climate of the site for reducing the need of mechanical heating or cooling hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress of the last decade diffused electronic and informatics’ devices in many human activities and now appear also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addiction to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building demotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. 43% reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and the consumption is increasing. Most industrialised countries are in addition becoming more and more dependent on external supplies of conventional energy carriers, i.e., fossil fuels. Energy for heating and cooling can be replaced by new renewable energy sources. New renewable energy sources, however, are usually not economically feasible compared with the traditional carriers. In order to achieve the major changes needed to alleviate the environmental impacts of the building sector, it is necessary to change and develop both the processes in the industry itself, and to build a favourable framework to overcome the present economic, regulatory and institutional barriers.
Keywords: Renewable energy technologies, Energy efficiency, Sustainable development, Emissions, Built environment
AbstractSudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Energy sources are divided into two main types; conventional energy (woody biomass, petroleum products, and electricity); and non-conventional energy (solar, wind, hydro, etc.). Sudan possesses a relatively high abundance of sunshine, solar radiation, moderate wind speeds, hydro, and biomass energy resources. Like many tropical countries, Sudan has ample biomass resources that can be efficiently exploited in a manner that is both profitable and sustainable. Fuel-wood farming offers cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions for Sudan, with the added benefit of providing sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biomass technology in Sudan. This current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This chapter provides an overview of biomass energy activities and highlights future plans concerning optimum technical and economical utilisation of biomass energy available in Sudan. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.
Keywords: Sudan, Energy, Consumption patterns, Renewable energy potential, Biomass, Biogas
AbstractPositron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been applied in the present work to study the defect structure changes of the Zn1-xNixO (0% ≤ x ≤ 10%). This system has been synthesized in nanosize by coprecipitation method. Nanostructure features of the prepared samples have been investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM. The XRD data has revealed that the prepared samples are crystalline and belong to space group P63mc. The deduced estimated average crystallite size is varying from 20 nm to 96 nm in agreement with TEM measurements The variation of lattice parameters and internal strain that have been deduced from XRD data, have shown that the solubility limit of NiO in ZnO does not exceed 5% and are correlated with PAL parameters. At 7% and 10% concentrations the XRD spectra has revealed the presence of secondary peaks due to creation of a new NiO phase, which indicates that Ni is no more incorporated in the ZnO structure. This has been also confirmed by the variation of the energy gap Eg deduced from the UV absorbance spectra and the variation of FTIR absorption bands. The (M-H) curves have shown that the saturation magnetization Ms suggest the presence of ferromagnetism which decreases with increasing Ni content up to 5%. This is associated with an increase in the formation of vacancy clusters and positron trapping rate in the interface region. In addition, the vacancy defects play an important role in mediating the ferromagnetism behavior in agreement with the polaron model.
Keywords: Zinc oxide, PALS, Magnetization, Nanoparticles, Energy gap
AbstractIn 2011 the global heat transfer (HTF) market was estimated to be worth $1,684 and is projected to be worth $2,557 million by 2017. The generation of energy from the solar sector is one area that is growing with a projected output of 630 GW by 2050. In the concentrated closer power (CSP) sector, the most commonly used HTF is the eutectic mixture of biphenyl diphenyl oxide (BDO). The chemistry of this fluid means that CSP plants can operate up to 400 degrees Celsius. However, this is not the only key feature of a HTF as other parameters need to be considered. This article discusses the key features of a BDO fluid.
Keywords: Heat transfer fluid, Closer power, Biphenyl diphenyl oxide, Solar thermal fluids
AbstractTNF– α directly damages the vascular endothelial cells, reduces regional blood flow, causes occlusion of vessels and increases endothelial permeability. Endothelial cell injury after TNF– α mediated activation of immune system may result in secretion of vasoactive substances and increase in vascular permeability and intravascular coagulation. TNF-α may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and may identify the patients who are at high risk of PE and can be a potential marker of the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome. Preeclamptic women had deranged lipid profile due to abnormal lipid metabolism; this alteration of lipid metabolism may play a key role in the development of symptoms of Pre-eclampsia. Furthermore, changes to lipid metabolism may contribute towards the endothelial lesions observed in pre-eclampsia.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, TNF– α, Lipid per-oxidation, Nitric oxide
AbstractThe paper looks at federalism as a political system and how it is being practisedin Nigeria. Using the descriptive method of data gathering, the paper reveals that there are contradictions in its practice in Nigeria. What obtains here is a disguised unitary system. There are many differences between the US and Nigeria in the practice of federalism. It is recommended that since some states are not economically viable, full autonomy be granted to the six regions as federating units as well as derecognizing local governments in the constitution.
Keywords: Federalism, Autonomy, Constituent units, Resource control
AbstractThe prime objectives of this study is to analysis the individual behavior in both bull and bear markets of paksitan. In this paper, we have examined the preferences, attitude towards risk and varying market condition. We have taken the data of 100 companies from various sectors. For this purpose the data of four years have been collected. Empirical evidences have shown that we have used the abnormal returns, volatility and systematic risk for the purpose of measure of risk. Due to various behavior biases, the overall individual behaviors are the different. This study is showing that bull and bear behaviors are associated with the Book to market valuation .we are also trying to show that overconfidence has impact on the investment decision. The objectives of this study are 1) to analyze the individuals behavior in the different market condition.2) In the Bull and Bear market individuals towards risk.3) impact of overconfidence on the different market situation. This study is the related to bull and bear market of Pakistan. It is limited till four years. In 2007 Karachi stock exchange was high growth it was reached till 14075.84 and with annual return of 33.54%. There have observed the significant effect of overconfidence on the risk attitudes. Our studies have taken the stock market of Karachi. Our study is showing very clearly that investor’s behaviors are different in both markets. In this study level of the ownership is taken dependent variable and independent are the no of outstanding shares, EPS, abnormal returns; we have measured the volatility through sigma.
Keywords: Karachi stock exchange, Risk, Abnormal return, Systematic risk
AbstractDental adhesion is the result of a physicochemical interaction between tooth structure and the adhesive polymeric restorative material. Adhesion involves molecular interactions at the interface between these constituents. Furthermore, mechanical interlocking is a common type of adhesion important in dental materials. This type of bonding involves the penetration of the adhesive into the dental surface and requires different energetic considerations for an optimal interface. An adequate infiltration of adhesive monomers into demineralized dentin depends on several factors that are determined by the atoms on the surface of the structures and the effects of surface energy on the thermodynamic work of adhesion. The polarity, solubility and viscosity of the adhesive system and the surface energy and moisture of dentin tissue are key factors that contribute to adhesion energy. The main goal of dental material adhesion is to produce an interface that is strong and durable. Thus, it is important to optimize the infiltration of adhesive monomers into exposed collagen fiber networks and dentinal tubules in order to increase the strength of the Resin-dentin bonds and produce adequate dentin sealing.
Keywords: Adhesive monomers, Interface, Dentin, Wettability, Contact degree, Surface energy