AbstractThis report documents a case of secondary inappropriate erythrocytosis in a cat with renal cell adenocarcinoma, its stabilization through manual erythrocytapheresis, and the EPO-immunostaining on the affected kidney. An 11-yearold cat was presented with lethargy, weight loss and polyuria/polydipsia. An abdominal mass was detected upon physical examination. Clinicopathological work-up revealed marked erythrocytosis (HCT value 64.8%), renal azotemia and decreased urine specific gravity (USG). An abdominal ultrasound was performed, localizing the mass in the right kidney. Serum erythropoietin (EPO) was above the reference interval (RI), and the cytology of the mass was indicative of renal carcinoma. Manual erythrocytapheresis was performed in order to stabilize the patient before surgery, improving the catâ€™s clinical and clinicopathological condition. After nephrectomy, EPO and creatinine concentrations returned within the RI, while the USG markedly increased. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of renal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry with anti-EPO antibody revealed diffuse and strong cytoplasmatic positivity in tumor cells.
Keywords: Erythropoietin, Feline, Immunohistochemistry, Manual erythrocytapheresis, Renal neoplasia
AbstractIn order to evaluate for the first time, the serological prevalence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and other Simbu group viruses in Lebanon, sheep originating from 15 Lebanese regions were sampled in September 2016. A total number of 750 serum samples from Awassi sheep were tested by ELISA for viral nucleoprotein antibodies. From the sampled animals, 122 animals were seropositive to SBV/Simbu group viruses. The seropositive sheep were mainly located in South Lebanon. At herd-level, a seroprevalence of 53.33% was recorded in the Seven Lebanese governorates. The animal-level seroprevalence was 16.26% and both animal and herd-level seroprevalences were negative in MountLebanon. Despite that there was some serological evidence showed the presence of some Simbu group viruses in the Middle East, no study was done in Lebanon. In this study, we report for the first time the prevalence of SBV and other Simbu group viruses in Lebanon.
Keywords: Lebanon, SBV, Schmallenberg virus, Sheep, Simbu group viruses
AbstractAn approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.
Keywords: Bloat, Colic, Gastric distention, Gastrointestinal tract, Rodent
AbstractThe objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals were allocated to the C group (negative control), and KCS was induced in 21 animals by topically applying 1% atropine sulfate drops for 7 days. Treatment with atropine was maintained throughout the study period (12 weeks). The rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups containing 7 animals each: FO group, LO group and FLO group (FO and LO). The animals were evaluated using the Schirmer Tear Test I (STT I), Rose Bengal Test (RBT), fluorescein test (FT), tear film break-up time (TBUT), and conjunctival and histopathological analysis. There was a significant increase in STT I and TBUT values in treatment groups, but the increase occurred earlier in the FO group. The results of the RBT and FT were similar among treatment groups, except FT, in the FLO group, negative staining was only in 12 weeks. There was a significant decrease in the number of goblet cells in the FLO group compared with the other groups. The results demonstrated that orally administered of FO and LO improved the clinical signs of KCS. However, improvement occurred earlier in the FO group. Using oils in combination did not provide additional benefits. These results contribute to the future development of new oral formulations as adjuvant therapies for KCS.
Keywords: Fish oil, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Linseed oil, Omega 3 and 6, Oral
AbstractMicroliths and ossification were found in the lungs of a 12-year-old bitch suffering from compound mammary gland tumor which has disseminated in the inguinal lymph node glands and the lungs. Pulmonary ossification appeared grossly as irregular stony sharp particles which infiltrated the lung tissue and were readily recognizable from under the pleura as grayish sharp protruding particles. Microscopic examination revealed the existence of intra-alveolar single or multilobular particles of ossification which are formed of lamellated osseous substance with osteocytes in lacunae. Microlith particles were also seen and were smaller, usually solitary and less frequent. They comprised strongly basophilic smooth laminated spherical particles which may enclose faintly stained substances. Both structures were not associated with inflammatory response. Larger particles appeared as white miliary spots by radiography. This article documents for a very rare case of pulmonary microlithiasis and ossification in a dog.
Keywords: Multicentric mammary tumors, Pulmonary microlithiasis, Pulmonary ossification
AbstractThis study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 (STT) determined before tear samples were obtained from the medial canthus with a microhaematocrit capillary tube. 10ul of tear was placed on a microscope slide and the time to first formation of a fern of crystallised tear solute was determined. The appearance of the ferning pattern was graded and correlated with the STT value. All eyes with KCS had abnormal ferning patterns while 39 out of the 50 normal dogs (78%) had so-called â€˜normalâ€™ ferning patterns. The mean STT for dogs showing â€˜normalâ€™ ferning patterns was 20.6mm/min for the left eye and 21.3mm/min for the right eye. STT values for eyes with â€˜abnormalâ€™ ferning patterns were 10.9mm/min and 12.4mm/min, these differing from the normal eyes with STT above 15mm/min significantly. These findings suggest that tear ferning could be a valuable technique for assessment of the tear film in dogs with KCS.
Keywords: Dog, Dry eye, Ferning, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Tear
AbstractIn this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp biomicroscopy in animals where lesions were detected. Tonometry using the Tonovet rebound tonometer was undertaken in selected animals as was assessment of tear production using the Schirmer I tear test. Four animals were affected by orbital infection, 3 were anophthalmic, 2 unilaterally and one bilaterally, 3 by conjunctivitis, 3 by non-ulcerative keratitis and 4 by uveitis with corneal oedema. Fifty seven animals were affected by cataract, 54 with bilateral nuclear lens opacities. Twenty six of these animals were young animals considered too small to hibernate. This report documents the first prospective study of ocular disease in the European hedgehog. The predominant finding was bilateral nuclear cataract seen particularly in young poorly growing animals. Investigation into the potential causation of cataracts by poor nutrition or poor feeding ability by lens opacification requires further study.
Keywords: Cataract, Conservation, Eye abnormality, Hedgehog, Rehabilitation
AbstractTo evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-BonnetÂ® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015) with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013), increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001), most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.
Keywords: Cochet-Bonnet, Cornea, Nociceptors, NSAID
AbstractEnvironmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 Î¼g/kg i.p., every 4th day). The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide) in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring generations. Hence, linking observed liver abnormality in the offspring to environmental exposure of their parental line. This study also illustrated that oxidative stress and apoptosis appear to be a molecular component of the hepatocyte cell injury.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Hepatocyte cell injury, Oxidative stress, Parental transmission
AbstractEfficient extraction of genomic DNA (gDNA) from biological materials found in harsh environments is the first step for successful forensic DNA profiling. This study aimed to evaluate two methods for DNA recovery from animal tissues (livers, muscles), focusing on the best storage temperature for DNA yield in term of quality, quantity, and integrity for use in several downstream molecular techniques. Six male Swiss albino mice were sacrificed, liver and muscle tissues (n=32) were then harvested and stored for one week in different temperatures, -20ï‚°C, 4ï‚°C, 25ï‚°C and 40ï‚°C. The conditioned animal tissues were used for DNA extraction by Chelex-100 method or NucleoSpinïƒ’ Blood and Tissue kit. The extracted gDNA was visualized on 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis to determine the quality of gDNA and analysed spectrophotometrically to determine the DNA concentration and the purity. Both methods, Chelex-100 and NucleoSpinïƒ’ Blood and Tissue kit found to be appropriate for yielding high quantity of gDNA, with the Chelexïƒ’100 method yielding a greater quantity (P < 0.045) than the kit. At -20ï‚°C, 4ï‚°C, and 25ï‚°C temperatures, the concentration of DNA yield was numerically lower than at 40ï‚°C. The NucleoSpinïƒ’ Blood and Tissue kit produced a higher (P=0.031) purity product than the Chelex-100 method, particularly for muscle tissues. The Chelex-100 method is cheap, fast, effective, and is a crucial tool for yielding DNA from animal tissues (livers, muscles) exposed to harsh environment with little limitations.
Keywords: DNA degradation, DNA extraction, DNA profiling, Purity, Temperature
AbstractAn 18-month-old male entire Bloodhound dog was presented with a six-week history of progressive inspiratory dyspnoea, stridor, dysphonia and exercise intolerance. CT scan performed elsewhere had revealed the presence of an unencapsulated nodular mass (3x1x5 cm) dorsal to the larynx and first tracheal rings. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the presence of bilateral laryngeal paralysis and distorted laryngeal architecture suggestive of extraluminal compression. Histopathology results of incisional biopsies from the mass were suggestive of a benign non-neoplastic muscular lesion. Surgery was performed to manage laryngeal paralysis and attempt mass excision. A second histopathology examination confirmed an inflammatory and dysplastic lesion suggestive of a pseudotumour. All clinical signs resolved after surgery and at the 13 months follow-up the dog remains asymptomatic. To the authorsâ€™ knowledge, this is the first report of a case of laryngeal paralysis caused by a muscle pseudotumour in a young dog.
Keywords: Dog, Laryngeal paralysis, Larynx, Muscle pseudotumour
AbstractA case of exophthalmos due to zygomatic mucocele in a puppy with ipsilateral segmental maxillary atrophy is reported. A 7-month-old, mixed breed, male dog suffered the sudden-onset of unilateral painful exophthalmos and a gradual swelling of the right temporal region. A compressing, right retrobulbar mass was observed by ultrasound. Computed tomography revealed a large multiloculated cyst-like lesion of the right zygomatic gland projecting into the orbital space, thus displacing the eyeball. The ipsilateral molar part of the maxillary bone was underdeveloped, besides showing crowded, abnormal, multiple, unerupted maxillary molar teeth in the caudal maxillary region. Modified lateral orbitotomy and a selective caudal maxillary bone access were performed. The cyst-like lesion was removed and the zygomatic gland and the wall was collected for histology, which confirmed the mucocele. Clinical and imaging examinations six months after surgery showed neither recurrence of the mucocele nor ocular abnormalities. A possible common pathogenic mechanism involving these two conditions could be hypothesized.
Keywords: Computed tomography, Dog, Exophthalmos, Maxillary atrophy, Zygomatic mucocele
AbstractAim of the study was to investigate dynamic radio-ulnar incongruence (dRUI) in the canine elbow joint comparing orthopedic healthy and dysplastic dogs in a prospective in vivo study design. In 6 orthopedic sound elbow joints (5 dogs, median age 17 months & mean body weight 27.9 kg) and 7 elbow joints with medial coronoid disease (6 dogs, median age 17.5 months & mean body weight 27.6 kg) 0.8 mm Ã˜ tantalum beads were surgically implanted into radius, ulna and humerus for dynamic radiosteriometric analysis (RSA) using high-speed biplanar fluoroscopy with the dogs walking on a treadmill. dRUI, in the form of proximo-distal translation of the radius relative to the ulna, was measured for the first third of stance phase and compared between groups using unpaired t-testing. Healthy elbow joints exhibited a relative radio-ulnar translation of 0.7 mm (SD 0.31 mm), while dysplastic joints showed a translation of 0.5 mm (SD 0.30 mm). No significant difference between groups was detected (p = 0.2092, confidence interval - 0.6 â€“ 0.2). Based on these findings dRUI is present in every canine elbow joint, as part of the physiological kinematic pattern. However, dysplastic elbow joints do not show an increased radio-ulnar translation, and therfore dRUI cannot be considered causative for medial coronoid disease.
Keywords: Canine, Elbow dysplasia, Fluoroscopy, Gait analysis, Radio-ulnar incongruence
AbstractA nine-year-old male European shorthair cat with rapidly enlarging mass at the left kidney doubted to be malignant was presented. The purpose of this study is to present the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of a primary renal tumor in the cat. Grossly, the mass mostly encapsulated the kidney. Histologically, excisional biopsy showed worrying histological features. A sarcoma-like tumor composed mainly of neoplastic spindle-shaped cells. Neoplastic nodules of aggregations of fusiform cells arranged in multidirectional bundles. Immunohistochemically, several immunohistochemical satins (melan-A, S-100, vimentin, actin, desmin, cytokeratin, neurofilament, melan-A, NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein GFAP, Collagen IV and CD99) were used to differentially diagnose the mass. The stained neoplastic sections positively tested to S-100, but negative to the other aforementioned immunohistochemical stains. Immunohistochemistry with S-100 antibody staining showed an unusually strong positive reaction throughout the tumor cells. Based on our comparative diagnosis relative to other tumors, in addition to the progressive clinical signs, histopathological and immunohistochemical results, this case was presumptively diagnosis as a malignant schwannoma. According to our investigation of the relevant literature, this study of malignant renal Schwannoma (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) is a highly rare case not previously characterized in a cat.
Keywords: Cat, Immunohistochemistry, Kidney, Schwannoma, Tumor
AbstractA ten-year-old male neutered cross breed dog presented for evaluation of a mass associated with the left scapular bone, identified as a carcinoma. The dog had a malignant pilomatricoma removed from the left lateral thigh 6 months earlier. Histopathology review of the cutaneous and scapular mass identified the same tumour type, confirming metastatic disease; additional metastases to the inguinal lymph node, liver and lungs were identified. Chemotherapy resulted in partial responses/stable disease of very short duration. Bisphosphonates were administered due to lack of a measurable response and worsening of the associated lameness. The patient ultimately developed a symptomatic vertebral metastasis and was euthanased. The dog survived 255 days since medical treatment was started and 455 days since surgical removal of the primary tumour. This case report suggests that medical treatment with the addition of analgesia may be able to palliate clinical signs and possibly extend survival in dogs with metastatic epithelial cancer.
Keywords: Bisphosphonates, Chemotherapy, Dog, Malignant pilomatricoma, Metastases
AbstractProspective data from 86 healthy pet rabbits were evaluated to establish reference intervals for hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, venous blood gas and electrolytes, rectal temperature and systolic blood pressure. Reference intervals for rectal temperature (37.4-39.6 ÂºC) and systolic blood pressure (75-134 mm/Hg) were previously unreported in pet rabbits. Differences by more than 30% with reference intervals present in the bibliography were observed in the blood biochemistry and urinalysis, being attributed to the variability in methodological factors with the present study.
Keywords: Biochemistry, Hematology, Rabbits, Rectal temperature, Systolic blood pressure
AbstractA wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.
Keywords: Mesencephalon, Midbrain, MRI, Stroke, Vulpes vulpes
AbstractA twenty-year-old female saddle horse was referred for evaluation of a seven month, non-healing erosive lesion of the right hind hoof with proliferation and bleeding of the underlying soft tissues. This lesion had been twice surgically treated as a canker but rapidly recurred. Histological examination of the second excision revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. At presentation, the horse was mildly depressed, lame and partially non-weight-bearing on the right hind leg, which exhibited a 10 x 10 cm erosive and proliferative lesion remodeling the hoof. After completing staging procedures, the lesion was approached with surgery and intraoperative electrochemotherapy (ECT) administration of bleomycin in isolated limb perfusion. A second session of surgery and ECT was performed one month later, followed by three additional monthly sessions of ECT. During periodic recheck, the mare showed continuous improvement. One year after presentation, the mare was in complete remission and her gait markedly improved. ECT was well-tolerated and resulted in improved local control of a tumor in a challenging anatomical district.
Keywords: Bleomycin, Electrochemotherapy, Equine, Hoof, Squamous cell carcinoma
AbstractIn order to better understand the training and athletic activity of horses, we must have complete understanding of the isoform diversity of various myofibrillar protein genes like tropomyosin. Tropomyosin (TPM), a coiled-coil dimeric protein, is a component of thin filament in striated muscles. In mammals, four TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) generate a multitude of TPM isoforms via alternate splicing and/or using different promoters. Unfortunately, our knowledge of TPM isoform diversity in the horse is very limited. Hence, we undertook a comprehensive exploratory study of various TPM isoforms from horse heart and skeletal muscle. We have cloned and sequenced two sarcomeric isoforms of the TPM1 gene called TPM1Î± and TPM1Îº, one sarcomeric isoform of the TPM2 and one of the TPM3 gene, TPM2Î± and TPM3Î± respectively. By qRT-PCR using both relative expression and copy number, we have shown that TPM1Î± expression compared to TPM1Îº is very high in heart. On the other hand, the expression of TPM1Î± is higher in skeletal muscle compared to heart. Further, the expression of TPM2Î± and TPM3Î± are higher in skeletal muscle compared to heart. Using western blot analyses with CH1 monoclonal antibody we have shown the high expression levels of sarcomeric TPM proteins in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Due to the paucity of isoform specific antibodies we cannot specifically detect the expression of TPM1Îº in horse striated muscle. To the best of our knowledge this is the very first report on the characterization of sarcmeric TPMs in horse striated muscle.
Keywords: Absolute copy number, Horse, qRT-PCR, Relative expression, TPM
AbstractWe investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and histopathological characteristics of the wart lesion and was confirmed by PCR. Rolling circle amplification followed by degenerate primer PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of both Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2, previously identified in infected dromedaries in Sudan.
Keywords: Al Ahsa, Dromedary camels, Infection, Papillomavirus, Saudi Arabia