AbstractObjective: Currently, the evaluation of baseflow components have been of a worldwide concern due to the influential role of streamflow (base flow and direct flow)in agriculture, water sources management as well as supplying the potable water. Direct and field measurement of baseflow is not practicable especially in large areas with statistics deficiencies. Also, this would not be economically effective. So, there is a diversity of methods to estimate the baseflow. This study was conducted on "Abolabas" basin, a semi-arid region in the western-south of Iran. Methods: To estimate the baseflow, we employed the recorded data on daily streamflow within a lengthy period. We applied the smoothed minima baseflow separation of United Kingdom's Institute of Hydrology to assess the baseflow. For intermittent streams we used the developed model of this system (ADUKIH). ADUKIH is an efficient tool for separating baseflow from daily streamflow. Results: We compared ADUKIH to RDF and analyzed the outcomes. The results reflect that RDF is the most qualified (ÃŽÂ±=0.925). A striking similarity between two methods was observed ( R2=0.95).
Keywords: ADUKIH, Base flow separation, Daily stream flow, Intermittent stream, Abolabas river, Recursive digital filter
AbstractObjective: The aim of this experiment was to determine chemical composition, protein quality of corn gluten meal (CGM) and its effect on growth performance of broiler chicks. Methods: Chemical composition and nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy of CGM was determined by standard and precision-fed cockerel assay methods. For evaluating of protein quality, 90 male broiler chicks in a completely randomized design was used and fed experimental diets from 8 to 17 days of age and in the growth assay, 1200-day-old broiler chickens in a completely randomized design were used for evaluating effects of four levels of CGM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics. Results: The average of TMEn and crude protein content of CGM sample were 4145 kcal/kg and 60.44 %, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) and Net protein ratio (NPR) values for CGM were 1.26 and 2.30, respectively. The growth assay result showed that the all level of CGM had positive effect on broiler performance (P<0.01), While, the best weight gain and FCR were obtained in the birds were fed 12% of CGM in different weeks of experimental period. Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested that the CGM can be used in the ration for improvement broiler chicksâ€™ performance.
Keywords: Corn gluten meal, Broiler, PER, NPR
AbstractObjective: Sera from 186 sheep (93 rams and 93ewes) from Tabriz, North-West of Iran were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. Methods: The animals were divided into two age groups (< 2 years, and > 2 years). Results: Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 13 of 186 sheep (6.98%). Infection rate in ewes was higher than rams but this difference was not significant. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma in sheep >2 years old was significantly higher than in other age groups. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate a low prevalence of T. gondii in sheep tested in Tabriz by ELISA.
Keywords: Dairy cow, Follicular fluid, Corpus luteum, Follicular size, Metabolites
AbstractObjective: Whey protein is a byproduct of dairy industry, where cheese and casein are manufactured. This is the major protein content which is loss during the formation of yogurt and cheese. Methods: If this is added to the diet then that can enhance the nutritioal value for the diet, which will be very usefull. Results: In this study we try to find it out that the whey protein has the antibiotic effect, that much better than the antibiotic generally found in market. But this is not as much as better than the tetracyclin. But better than the common antibiotics like amoxicillin. So from the study we can conclude that the antibiotic which is used to provide strength against the different types of microrganism and also have the nutritional effect co that it can be use as a great nutritional element in future for the general house hold use and for the sport industry also.
Keywords: Whey protein, Antibiotics, Tetracyclin, Amoxicillin
AbstractObjective: Rubella is a viral disease with minor morbidity, unless it is contracted by a pregnant woman in early pregnancy that leads to congenital Rubella syndromes. Rubella occurrence during the first trimester leads to fetal death or severe congenital defects.Present study was conducted to survey the protection level against Rubella in the pregnant women of Gilan in IRAN,to be used for the vaccination and prevention programs. Methods: This investigation was carried out in six cities of the province,97 pregnant women aged between 17-38 years old serum samples were taken, Serum IgG and IgM levels were measured by inhibitory competitive ELISA.All cases had a protective level of anti-rubella IgG due to <5 IU/ml(negative), >10(positive) determination,Whereas two women had an equivocal level of IgM referred to <0.9 IU/ml(negative) and >1.1(positive) calculations. Results: According to the obtained results 2.06% of women were suspected to active Rubella infection. Significant correlations were found between seroprevalence of rubella IgG and geographical residency and seasonal fluctuations. Discussion: Our findings indicated that population general immunity exists nowadays,but this immunity level might not only be a result of vaccination,we strongly recommend routine antirubella IgG screening for women at the age of childbearing before marriage or conception as well as vaccinating non immune women.
Keywords: Rubella antibody, Preventation, ELISA, Gilan, IRAN
AbstractObjective: The cows that donâ€™t have access to sufficient energy in their ration can get sickness. Milk production has a high priority in metabolism of dairy cows so lactating cows are more prone to get sick This can ruin all the benefits of higher milk yield because of the higher prevalence of the disorders. Methods: Data for this research had gathered from a herd with 1600 Holstein cattle in East Azarbayjan province of Iran. Data were from 5052 lactation period of 1796 Holstein-Frisian cows which had parturition among 2005-2009. Seven groups of disorders have been analyzed. They are as follow: Cecal dilatation and rotation, diarrhea, abomasal distention and displacement to the right or left, locomotion problems and metritis. Each model consists of milk yield, parity, season and the year of calving. To determine the correlation between 305-day milk yield and occurring of disorders data have been analyzed with logistic regression model. Results: In this research current lactation was used as the lactation with occurrence of particular disorder. According to performed analysis on all cattle (heifers and the cows) higher milk yield was not a risk factor for the disorders occurrence except for diarrhea. Our outcomes showed a negative correlation between milk production with abomasal distention and left abomasal displacement. Analysis of correlation between prevalence of the disorders and 305- day yield showed a negative correlation with abomasal dilatation and displacement to the left and a positive correlation with diarrhea. Parity had a negative correlation with cecal rotation and dilatation, and a positive correlation with diarrhea. The year of calving had a significant correlation with abomasal dilatation and displacement of that to the right, cecal dilatation and rotation, diarrhea and locomotion problems. Calving season had only a significant relationship with cecal dilation and rotation. This research showed a complete correlation between some diseases and disorders in dairy cows and parameters that refer to milk production.
Keywords: Holstein cows, Locomotion problem, Metritis, Abomasal, Displacement, Cecal dilatation
AbstractObjective: Sarcomas are neoplasms of mesenchymal (stem cell) origin and are rare skin diseases of cats and may occur anywhere on the cat body.The main etiologies of soft tissue sarcomas are Feline sarcoma virus induced sarcomas, vaccine site sarcomas, trauma, inflammation and radiation. Methods: In March 2014, a three years old male domestic shorthair cat were referred to a private veterinary clinic in Tehran, Iran with a tumor-like bump on the plantar surface of his left pelvic limb. As a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure, surgical excision was recommended. Results: It seems that, due to the location of the fibrosarcoma in this cat it was a result of a prior wound or foreign body insertion to plantar surface of the affected limb. The development of a sarcoma at a site of previous trauma or inflammation has been documented in animals and people, although rarely.
Keywords: Fibrosarcoma, Domestic shorthair, Cat
AbstractObjective: Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease with a rising prevalence in the cattle industry. It is most common in dairy calves one to ten weeks of age. Salmonellosis has a serious economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. Methods: In May 2013, a three months old male Holstein calf with the history of lateral recumbency was referred to veterinary hospital with severe depression, cachexia, mild yellowish of sclera, bradypenea, moderate dehydration and watery feces with mucous. Blood, CSF and peritoneal fluid samples were taken and referred to laboratory. Results: In bacteriologic evaluation, serogroup D of Salmonella were isolated from all samples. Histopathologic examination showed mild fatty change with multiple typhoid nodules, hyperemia and necrosis in liver and severe hyperemia in spleen. According to clinical, post mortem examination and laboratory results, the diagnosis of chronic salmonellosis was confirmed.
Keywords: Splenomegaly, Chronic salmonellosis, Holstein
AbstractObjective: Molds produce poisons called mycotoxins,OTA is one of the most relevant mycotoxins which is generally produced by Aspergillus, its presence in food and feed products being regulated in many countries. Methods: From the first May to the last October2011,sampling was done according to"CBS" instructions for indoor and outdoor situations. Isolates were identified and recorded in the laboratory on fungal biomass prepared a sample group and crude cell extracts were prepared in the laboratory and Ochratoxin was produced by fungal isolates in cell extracts was measured by using ELISA. Results: Significance rate is higher than 0.05.Thus the changes in Ochratoxin production donâ€™t depend on various levels of geographic area ,it can be stated that in the Aspergillus species studied in this geographic area,it is expected to observe Ochratoxin production in 2.5-5ppb range. Discussion: According to the fact that maximum limit toxin in food stocks is 5 ppb,it must be greatly noticed into consideration.While it must be taken greatly into attention that some of isolated studied in the area produced the toxin in great amounts (20-25ppb).That may be dangerous for health significance of correlation between the toxin rate and the original province where sampling of studied isolates was performed is 100% for Guilan and Mazandaran and 99% for Golestan provinces.It may be stated that it is not possible to find as specific area with considered field conditions to be the growth area or origin of a given Aspergillus species with a given density of their presence or their dependence to a area or dependence of their classification the section of subgenus groups in the standard rules for classification of Aspergilli.
Keywords: Ochratoxin, Aspergillus, Toxigenic activity, Biomass, ELISA
AbstractObjective: The role of vitamin D has soared to a pinnacle in recent years with functions affecting 229 human genes linked to cardiovascular, autoimmune, humoral, pulmonary and neurological diseases. Relationship between obesity and vitamin D has not as yet been fully established. The objective of the study was to determine the possible relationship between Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risk of obesity. Methods: Total 100 subjects (50 obese and 50 normal) were selected. Oral rinse samples were collected (between 18-45 years of age) after an informed consent. DNA was extracted and PCR was performed using VDR-Fok1 primers. A 256bp amplified products was visualized by Gel Doc Hero Lab software (Germany). Results: The results of VDR-Fok1 gene polymorphism showed that out of 50 obese subjects 40%were normal (FF=20), 54%were Heterozygous (Ff = 27) and 6% were mutated (ff= 3). Out of 50 nonobese subjects 84% were normal (FF= 42), 16% were Heterozygous (Ff= 8) and none were mutated (ff= 0%). The statistical analysis results between the ff genotype and obesity were not significant. The ff genotype of VDR may be associated with obesity. More studies with larger sample size are required to find a stronger correlation.
Keywords: Vitamin D, Obesity, VDR, Fok1 Polymorphism, PCR-RFLP
AbstractObjective: The genus Trichoderma comprises a great number of fungal strains that act as biological control agents, the antagonistic properties of which are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms. Methods: Trichoderma strains exert biocontrol against fungal phytopathogens either indirectly, by competing for nutrients and space, modifying the environmental conditions, or promoting plant growth and plant defensive mechanisms and antibiosis, or directly, by mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. In order for identification of Trichoderma species, sampling was performed from plant tissues and soil samples of medicinal plants in the South Khorasan province during 2012-2114 years. Several isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from soil and tissue samples using the Trichoderma selective medium. Results: Isolates were identified based on macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics such as a growth and shape of the colony, type of conidiophore formation, shape and size of phialide and conidium on CMD and MEA and using valid Trichoderma keys. So far, four species were identified harzianum, crassum, brevicompactum, and virens spices. T. harzianum was the most frequent species among isolates and isolated from Russian olive, Camelthorns, Jujube, Barberry and Basil samples.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, Iran, Harzianum, Crassum, Brevicompactum, Virens
AbstractObjective: Microbiological infection plays vital role in determining the outcome as well as cost and duration of the hospital stay for patients admitted in ICU setup. Therefore regular surveillance of important pathogens and its related factors are mandatory. The objective of this study was to find out the organisms causes infection in patients admitted in different Trauma-surgery, medical and neurology ICUs and related factors. Methods: Our study was a prospective descriptive-analytic study. During the period from January 2013 to January 2014, total of 520 samples (blood, respiratory tract, urine etc.) from patients admitted in Trauma-surgical, medical and Neuro-ICUs of Ardabil cityIran were collected and processed for culture, identification and antibiotic susceptibility. The medical and microbiological information were recorded from all patients whose samples were positive. Results: Out of 520 positive cultures the most frequent organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp 24.6% (n=128), followed by Klebsiella spp 18.63% (n=97), Acinetobacter spp 15% (n=78) and S.aureus 17.1%. The mortality rate of patients with positive cultures was 13.67% (n=71) with a mean length of stay of 13.7Â±12.04 days compared to 7.5Â±8.5 days in survived. Mortality rate was 15.79% in neurology, 15.54% in surgical-trauma and 11.05% in medical patients. A significant relation between surgeries, CVS and mechanical ventilation with mortality (P<0.001) was found. No significant relation between each type of ICUs and microbiology was detected. Conclusions: This report reveals the Microbiology profile in patients in ICUs. Regular microbiological surveillance help in implementing better therapeutic strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality associated among the patients in critical care setting.
Keywords: ICUS, Bacterial cultures, Mortality
AbstractObjective: A research was carried out to investigate the effects of nettle (Urtica dioica) powder (NP) and essential oil (NE) on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and antioxidant stability in broiler chicks. Methods: The treatments were T1: control diet, T2: control diet + 5g/kg NP, T3: control diet + 10 g/kg NP, T4: control diet + 5g/kg NE and T5: control diet + 10 g/kg NE. Blood sampling was performed at 35 days of age to evaluate the blood hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters. At the end of experiment carcass characteristics were determined. The thigh meat samples were used to evaluate meat oxidative stability. Results: There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. In contrast, some of the carcass internal organs such as liver, bile sac, gizzard, proventriculus, and lungs weight were affected by the different level of NP and NE (p<0.05). The results of blood metabolites indicated that use of NP and NE decreased AST (IU/L) in birds (P<0.05). However, blood parameters such as ALP, ALT, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride were not affected by dietary treatments. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an indicator for meat lipid oxidation after storage, were not influenced by adding NP and NE in broiler diets. This study concluded that inclusion of 10g/kg nettle (Urtica dioica) essential oil in diet probably can induce a potential toward improve internal organs. However, broilers performance did not altered by dietary nettle supplementation.
Keywords: Nettle, Broiler, Performance, Antioxidant stability
AbstractObjective: Fusarium diseases that cause grain mold and stalk rot of millet are the most important diseases, of these crops in Iran. Fusarium can cause stalk rots, ear rots, and grain mold, resulting in serious production losses in millet, and produce mycotoxins that are harmful to both humans and domesticated animals. Methods: A total of 23 Fusarium isolates were recovered from Foxtail millet collected from different geographic regions of Southern Khorasan provinces in Iran during 2012 - 2014. Fusarium isolates were identified based on the morphological characters. Results: According to morphological features, 9 out of 23 isolates were identified as F. solani, one as F. fujikuroi, three as F. diversisporum., one as F. verticillioides, three as F. semitectum, two as F. equiseti, one as F. crookwellense and three as F. acuminatum. Based on the available references, all Fusarium species that were recovered in this study, are reported from millet for the first time from Iran.
Keywords: Fusarium, Millet, Iran, Setaria italic, Foxtail millet
AbstractObjective: Aflatoxin G1 and G2, are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi sampling was done according to "CBS" instructions from indoor and outdoor stations. Methods: In HPLC measuring, we first purified our sample of all Aflatoxins, We used imonoaffinty columns, Finally the device compared average of the results of the samples curve areas with average of the results of standard curve areas and showed the effective material value based on ppb. Geographical distribution of 107 mentioned samples and The frequency of subgenuses in different regions, The minimum, average and maximum amount of toxins, The average amount of produced toxin in culture medium were determined. Results: In comparison, the average of aflatoxin G1 and G2with HPLC method in biomass the highest examined amount is in the range of -0/5 -0/5 ppb which is produced by fungi such as A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus. In biomass, the correlation between aflatoxin G1 and G2 measured by HPLC method isnâ€™t any reverse relation and meaningful numeral differences. In culture medium, checking the average value of aflatoxin G1 and G2which is measured by HPLC method, we can see a correlation and there is a meaningful numeral difference.
Keywords: Pattern, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus, Northern iran
AbstractObjective: Investigating the microbes and interactions of the beneficial symbiotic relationships between the components of the system ecology in the food chains and life cycles is one of the modern sustainable agriculture topics. In this regard, to evaluate the effects of bacteria and vermicompost on morphological characteristics and yield of soybean an experiment was conducted as split plot in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Methods: Main plots of experiment were at two levels including the non-use and the use of bacteria and the subplots were at three levels including the non-use of vermicompost (control), the use of 5 tons of vermicompost per acre and the use of 10 tons of vermicompost per acre. Results: The results of mean comparison showed that the treatment including 10 tons of vermicompost had the highest amount of oil content (11%) and the lowest amount was obtained from the treatment including use of 5 tons with the amount of 9.77%. Increasing the seed growing and filling period led to obtain the highest amount of seed yield with the amount of 1699 kg ha while the lowest amount of seed yield was obtained from the treatment including non-use of vermicompost with the amount of 1419 kg ha. The use of bacteria compared with non-use of it led to obtain the highest amount of seed yield with the amount of 1636 kg ha while non-use of bacteria had the lowest amount of seed yield with the amount of 1443 kg ha. Also, the results showed that the plants at the flowering stage had the highest amount of relative water content and chlorophyll of leaf by use of 10 tons of vermicompost while in the seed filling stage the treatment including the use of 5 tons of vermicompost had the highest amount of RWC.
Keywords: bacteria, Soybean, yield, chlorophyll, RWC, vermicompost
AbstractObjective: To evaluate the effects of bacteria and vermicompost on phenology and growth of soybean trial an experiment was conducted as split plot in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Methods: Main plots of experiment at two levels included the non-use and the use of bacteria and the subplots at three levels included the non-use of vermicompost (control), the use of 5 tons of vermicompost per acre and the use of 10 tons of vermicompost per acre. Results: The results showed that the treatment including 10 tons of vermicompost had the highest amount of the days to full maturity with the amount of 153 days and the treatment of non-use of vermicompost had the lowest amount of the days to full maturity. Also, the highest amount of SFP was obtained from the treatment including the use of vermicompost at the rate of 10 tons per acre that increasing the seed growing and filling period led to obtain the highest amount of seed yield with the amount of 1699 kg ha while the lowest amount of seed yield was obtained from the treatment including non-use of vermicompost with the amount of 1419 kg ha. The use of bacteria compared with non-use of it led to obtain the highest amount of seed yield with the amount of 1636 kg ha while non-use of bacteria had the lowest amount of seed yield with the amount of 1443 kg ha. Also, the results obtained from the analysis of variance showed that the effects of using vermicompost on the stem diameter, plant height, and days to pod at the level of 1% and on the days to flowering, days to full maturity and seed yield at the 5% level were significant.
Keywords: Soybean, Vermicompost, Bacteria, Phonological, Characteristics, Yield
AbstractObjective: In order to study the effect of solopotasse fertilizer on yield and essential oil of cumin medicinal plant. Methods: A experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications conducted in kermam city, Iran, in 2013. solopotasse fertilizer in four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/h) investigated. Plant height, number of umbrella per plant, number of seed per umbrella, 1000 seed weight and essential oil percentage were measured. Results: Effect of solopotasse fertilizer on plant height, number of umbrella per plant, number of seed per umbrella and 1000 seed weight was significant (p<0.01). The highest evaluation on the plant height, number of seed per umbrella and 1000 seed weight was obtained in the application of 150 kg/h solopotasse fertilizer with averages of 30.51cm, 19.32 and 2.38g. Increasing concentrations of solopotasse fertilizer, resulted in increased evaluations on the plant height, number of seed per umbrella and 1000 seed weight. The highest evaluation on the essential oil percentage was obtained in the application of 0, 150, 50 and 100 kg/h solopotasse fertilizer with averages of 2.05, 2.03, 2.02 and 2.01%. solopotasse fertilizer had significant (P<0.01) positive effects on plant height, number of seed per umbrella and 1000 seed weight compared with control treatment.
Keywords: Cuminum cyminum, Essential oil, Solopotasse fertilizer, Yield
AbstractObjective: In order to Investigate effects of Gibberlic acid (GA3) and Sprimidin Poly Amine on Germination of three Cultivars of Wheat under Salinity Stress. Methods: The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with four replicates in Agronomy and plant breeding laboratory of Agricultural department of Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch in spring of 2014. The first factor was salinity with four levels (S1: 3.87 ds/m, S2: 5.95 ds/m, S3: 10.25 ds/m and S4: 12.87 ds/m) and the second factor was three cultivars of spring wheat including V1: Tajan, V2: Arg and V3: Pishtaz and the third factor 4 levels of hormone including H0: control (not application of hormone), H1: GA3 100 mg/L, H2: sprimidin 5 mmol/L and H3: GA3 100 mg/L + sprimidin 5 mmol/L. coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, coleoptiles, cleorhiza and seedling dry weight, tissue water content (TWC), germination percent and number of damaged seeds were measured. Results: Analysis of variance showed that coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, seedling and cleorhiza dry weigth affected by salinity, hormone and cultivar treatment at 1% of probability level. There are no significant differences for other properties. Results of this experiment indicated that even application of these treatments, development processes of germination under salinity stress decreased greatly.
Keywords: Wheat, Germination, Sprimidin, Gibberlic Acid, Salinity
AbstractObjective: Mold contamination of cakes and the possibility of mold growth can pose a serious health problem. Bakery products include various ingredients, which regularly contain molds. These microorganisms on cakes can come from the air, contaminated packaging materials and other sources. Methods: In this study, a total of 500 fungal isolates representing 36 species, were identified from cake samples and ambient environment air on four different media. For each cake sample, four culture and two culturing methods, spread plating and pour plating, were applied. For environment, precipitating technique during producing and suspension of work were used. Identification based on morphological characterization included colonyâ€™s structure and profiles were identified by slide culture technique and primary Keys identification. Meanwhile four typeâ€™s media studied for growth rate (mm/day) of 36 isolated mold species after 14 days at 25Â°C. Results: The most predominant fungal genera arranged in cake samples were Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Mucor and Rhizopus sp.as the same, and Alternaria sp. respectively. The most frequent environment fungi were as the order follows: Aspergillus (24.5%), Penicillium (21.30%), Cladosporium (20.65%), Alternaria (12.15%), Trichoderma (9.51%), Epicoccum (7.29%), Mucor (3.64%), Rhizopus (0.81%). No significant difference was observed between the data obtained the spread plating and pour plating technique. Spores germination for each media was also measured and indicated varies greatly between MEA and other. Conclusions: Comparison of colonyâ€™s growth rates was adapted with the previous results of counting colonies. Considering the time-rate relationship amongst 36 fungal species, 14 of them fallowed linear equations and 7 others followed nonlinear Gauss-Newton curves.
Keywords: Cakes, Fungal contamination, Frequency of molds, Growth rates