AbstractObjective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of citrus brown snail powder as a source of calcium on growth performance, tibia characteristics, immune response and blood metabolites in broiler chickens. Methods: One hundred and eighty 1-day old chicks were randomly distributed into four treatments, each of which had three replicates. Each replicate contains 15 chicks. The treatments were included four inclusion rates of citrus brown snail powder (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) in diets. Results: The results showed that diets supplemented with 2% snail powder improved feed conversion ratio of broilers at 42 days of age (P <0.05). Relative weights of organs, except for liver and digestive tract, were not affected by dietary treatments. The dietary treatments had a significant effect on blood triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lymphocyte of broilers (P <0.05). The others blood metabolites such as calcium, phosphorous, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hemoglobin and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were not influenced by dietary treatments. The results of this experiment showed that use of citrus brown snail powder in diets had no significant effect on the immune response (antibody titer) against Newcastle (NDV) and infectious bronchitis (IBV) disease viruses in broilers. Tibia calcium and phosphorous content was increased in broilers fed diets supplementation with citrus brown snail powder (P <0.05). It was concluded that the addition of citrus brown snail powder to diet can improved growth performance and tibia characteristics in broilers.
Keywords: Snail, Broiler, Performance, Blood metabolites, Tibia
AbstractObjective: The protein quality of earthworm meal was evaluated and compared to that of soybean meal (SBM) in two experiments using broiler chicks. Methods: The protein quality of earthworm meal was evaluated and compared to that of soybean meal (SBM) in two experiments using broiler chicks. Results: The results of experiment 1 indicated that there were no significant differences between earthworm meal and soybean meal in PER or NPR, but the breast muscle weight was increased in broilers fed earthworm meal diets, significantly (p<0.05). The birds fed with earthworm meal diets had a higher crude protein digestibility (p<0.05). In experiment 2, feed efficiency ratio was decreased in broilers fed diets supplemented with earthworm meal (p<0.05). The results of carcass characteristics showed that dietary treatments had a significant effect on breast percentage (p<0.05). The crypt depth of jejunum was higher in birds fed with maximum inclusion rate of earthworm meal (p<0.05). In experiment 2, the blood biochemical parameters of broilers were not affected by treatments. In regards with these results, it is suggested that use of earthworm meal in broiler diets may be suitable.
Keywords: Earthworm meal, Protein quality, Performance, Broiler chickens
AbstractObjective: Polyphenol oxidase or PPO (EC 126.96.36.199) is considered the enzyme responsible for quality deterioration and browning in different fruits during postharvest period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibrowning (inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity) effect of Cysteine, Ascorbic acid, citric acid, kojic acid and glycine at two different pH (6 and 7) in hawthorn. Methods: Partial purified polyphenol oxidase was mixed with Cys, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glycine and kojic acid, to assess their effect on PPO. Results: The most effective PPO inhibitors was kojic acid. IC50 for cysteine was earned 0.48 and 0.58, for ascorbic acid, 0.8 and 1, for citric acid, 0.75 and 0.85 and for kojic acid was 0.3 and 0.4 at pH 6 and 7, respectively Partial purified polyphenol oxidase was mixed with Cys, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glycine and kojic acid, to assess their effect on PPO. The most effective PPO inhibitors was kojic acid. IC50 for cysteine was earned 0.48 and 0.58, for ascorbic acid, 0.8 and 1, for citric acid, 0.75 and 0.85 and for kojic acid was 0.3 and 0.4 at pH 6 and 7, respectively.
Keywords: Inhibition, Polyphenol oxidase, Hawthorn, Crataegus spp, L-cysteine, Citric acid
AbstractObjective: Citrinin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and occurs mainly in food products and animal feed. Some scientific reports show a link between Citrinin and nephrotoxic and possibly a carcinogenic effect for humans. Methods: Samples collected by settling plates,in northern Iran and pure culture isolation performed till the toxin measurement to be done in cell extracts (biomass) which prepared by merging culture in separated prepared culture media incubation. The amount of toxin measured by extracting solutions (50% Acetone, 25% Alcohol Methylic,25% Alcohol Ethylic and PBS washing proposed) using Direct Competitive ELISA. Results: In conducted research, the relative distribution per obtained Aspergillus species isolates for biomass preparation showed that the most frequent were A.ostianus, A.fumigatus,A.niveus,A.niger,A.awamori and A.parasiticus respectively with a prevalence (28.6%), according to averaged Citrinin, indicated that the potent species was A.niger (2009.3ppb) whereas the lowest observed by A.wentii (18.46 ppb).According to maximum Citrinin limits (200ppb) in food products and animal feed including especially related to the Aspergilli and Penicilli, as the result of our measurements and the performed statistical analysis , the maximum amount of Citrinin in the cell extracts, respectively were determined (2009.3ppb) and always produced by A.niger , that were too much more than the universal and local standards allowance enable us to introduce it for all biotechnologic or toxicologic research mentions eventhought as a scientific opinion on the risks for public and animal health related to the presence of Citrinin in food and feed at the targeted geographic area.
Keywords: Citrinin, Aspergillus species, Toxigenic activity, Cell extracts, Food and Feed
AbstractObjective: The Rifampicin resistance and susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are caused by mutations in the 81-base pair region of the rpoB gene encoding the bsubunit of RNA polymerase. Methods: Isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis is related to mutations in inha , oxyR and ahpC genes which 30 to 90 percent of Isoniazid resistance is occurred in 3015 codons of katg gene. The rpoB and katG sequences of 30 isolates were analyzed to identify the mutations and compare the mutations with their related susceptibilities. Results: In this research, we investigated the location and type of rpoB and katG mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which had been achieved from Pasteur Institute of Tehran. PCR Amplification and DNA sequencing methods were performed. In this assay, from 507 to 537 codons and 315 codons of rpoB and katG genes were sequenced and also mutations were analyzed, respectively.
Keywords: M. tuberculosis, Rpob, Katg, MTB
AbstractObjective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different proportions of marshmallow extract (Althaea officinalis L.) on growth performance and carcass composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: Common carp with an average weight of 37.65 Â± 4.40 g were fed for two months with a diet supplemented with marshmallow (A. officinalis) extract 0.25%, 0.50 and 1%, and with normal diet as controls. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) were assessed on days 30 and 60. The growth performance including weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and condition factor (CF) were measured on days 15, 30, 45 and 60. Results: Results of the present study showed that specimens fed a diet supplemented with marshmallow extract (0.25%) exhibited dramatically increased growth performance, which was the highest amongst all treatments (P<0.05). The addition of marshmallow extract did not have any effects on hepato-somatic index (HSI), intestine-somatic index (ISI) and condition factor when compared to the control diet. However, administering high levels of marshmallow extract had adverse effects on growth performance of specimens. Our results showed slight changes in body composition of fish fed a diet supplemented with marshmallow extract compared with controls. It can be concluded that marshmallow extract 0.25% can act as a growth stimulator. On the other hand, high levels of marshmallow may have anti-nutritional factors that decrease the utilization of the given feed.
Keywords: Marshmallow, Common carp, Body composition, Growth performance
AbstractObjective: Newbouldia laevis Seem, is an ubiquitous perennial plant belonging to the family Bignoniaceae with varying applicability in ethnomedicine. Methods: The anticonvulsant effect of the aqueous extracts of root and stem bark preparations was undertaken using standard techniques. Results: Results showed that the LD50 in mice was 489.8mg/kg body weight while 5.6mg/kg body weight protected mice against death due to minimum dose of leptazole which caused 100% mortality. The therapeutic index for N. laevis was 87.2 and its safety factor was 1.5. The extract of N. laevis appears to be more effective against drug-induced convulsion than electroshock seizures because the ED50 in metrazol test (5.6mg/kg body weight was significantly lower than the ED50 in MES test (63.1mg/kg body weight). We conclude that N. laevis is safe and will offer maximal benefit to patients suffering from seizures.
Keywords: Anticonvulsant, Metrazol, MES test, Newbouldia laevis, Safety factor, Therapeutic index
AbstractObjective: Annona senegalenesis Pers is a sprawling shrub belonging to the family Annonaceae, and is mainly used in ethnomedicine. The use of decoction of A. senegalenesis is very prominent in the management of various conditions ranging from bacterial infection, worm infestation, snake bites, pyrexia and febrile convulsion in folk medicine. Methods: The investigation on anticonvulsant activities of A. senegalenesis was undertaken using animal models with a view to elucidating its mechanism of action Results: Results revealed that the aqueous extract of the root of A. senegalenesis was safe at high doses (LD50 954.99Â±2.86 mg/kg body weight), protected drugâ€“induced convulsion in mice, prevented electroshock in mice, being more effective against generalized than partial seizures and prolonging drug-induced sleep in mice. We conclude that the roots of A. senegalenesis have definite anticonvulsant activity and there is valid pharmacological basis for employing same for this purpose by the local people.
Keywords: Annona senegalenesis, pers, Anticonvulsant, Clonic spasm, Ethnomedicine, Febrile convulsion
AbstractObjective: An experiment was performed in Ardabil (2012) to investigate the effects of manure consumption in different amounts on reducing nitrogen fertilizer consumption in potato cv. Agria. Methods: This research was conducted in factorial design based on randomized completely blocks design in three replication in which two manure factors in three levels (control, 30 and 60 tons/h) and nitrogen fertilizer in 4 levels (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% recommended) were investigated. Results: Results showed that increased manure usage led to increased tuber yield, and the most yields were obtained from 60 tons/h manure usage. Manure causes increased tuberâ€™s average weight per plant, number of tubers per plant, tubers average weight, plantâ€™s wet and dry weight, plant height and tuberâ€™s nitrate. Also, nitrogen fertilizer caused increased potato tuber yield in which the most yields were obtained from nitrogen fertilizer up to 100% recommended, and it also caused other properties increase. Significantly, increased nitrogen usage increased tubers nitrate and tubers nitrate obtained from nitrogen fertilizer up to 100% recommended. Results from variance analysis showed that manure-nitrogen fertilizer interaction in growth properties was not significant but, in 1% probability level it was statistically significant in tuber and nitrate yield components properties. Increased manure usage from recommended 30 to 60 tons/h and nitrogen from 50 to75 percent have had better effects on total properties, especially in terms of nitrate accumulation. So, the highest yields were obtained from manure usage up to 60 tons/h.
Keywords: Manure, Nitrate, Tuber, Weight, Yield
AbstractObjective: In this paper, we have introduced topoisomerase inhibitors, mechanism of action and types of them. DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze essential enzymes to solve the topological problems accompanying key nuclear processes such as DNA replication, transcription, repair and chromatin assembly by introducing temporary single or double strand breaks in the DNA. Results: There are two types of DNA topoisomerase: I and II, which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle. Topoisomerases are crucial for the several DNA functions (e.g. replication and transcription) that require the DNA to be unravelled, a process that generates tension and entanglement in DNA. Topoisomerase I breaks a single DNA strand while topoisomerase II breaks both strands and requires ATP for full activity. In both cases, the enzyme is covalently attached to the DNA through tyrosine residues in the active site.
Keywords: Topoisomerase, inhibitors, DNA replication, Transcription, DNA supercoiling
AbstractObjective: Mashhad metropolis as the second largest religion city in the world and the second largest metropolis of Iran with an annual 3 million pilgrims have significant direct and indirect effects on the watershed leading to the city and surrounding over the past four decades. There is no collection system and sanitation disposal network in towns and villages within the Torghabeh River. Methods: Therefore, in this study the qualitative changes of Torghabeh River from October 2011 to September 2012 at 8 stations during four seasons (autumn, winter, spring, summer) was investigated by sampling of surface waters and measurement of water quality parameters along the river. Data from this study were analyzed using NSFWQI Index and finally was zoning using GIS software. Results: The results showed that the best and worst quality is related to stations 1 and 8, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the autumn season with an average of 46 has the best quality among the studied seasons. However, the worst situation (bad quality) was related to winter season with an average of 39. Finally, it can be concluded that the water quality of Torghabeh River in its different parts is far from the desired level.
Keywords: Water quality, Torghabeh river, NSFWQI, GIS, Zoning
AbstractObjective: This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA alleles and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a sample of Iraqi patients. Methods: A total of 30 patients were studied, in addition to 20 age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. All subjects were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) method. Results: For HLA-class I region (A and B loci), only HLA-A*19 allele showed a significant (P = 0.031) decreased frequency in VL patients as compared with controls (13.3 vs. 45.0%), and such deviation was associated with OR and PF values of 0.19 and 0.37, respectively. At HLA-class II region, HLA-DRB1*03 and HLA-DQB1*02 alleles were significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.013, respectively) increased in VL patients (56.6 vs. 20% and 46.6 vs. 10%, respectively) as compared with controls. The OR of such two positive associations was 5.23 and 7.88, respectively, and the EF value was 0.46 and 0.41, respectively. In contrast, HLA-DRB1*02 (13.3 vs. 45.0%) and HLA-DQB1*03 (33.3 vs. 70.0%) were significantly (P = 0.031 and 0.023, respectively) decreased in patients. However, none of these differences remained significant after correcting the P value for the number of alleles tested at each locus. Conclusions: these preliminary data suggest that HLA alleles may have some role in aetiopathogenesis of VL, and this role can be in favour of susceptibility and/or protection.
Keywords: HLA, PCR, Visceral leishmaniasis
AbstractObjective: The toxic effects of sublethal concentrations of endosulfan on Oreochromis niloticus was examined using bioaccumulation and histopathology studies of the liver as toxicological endpoint. Methods: The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development #407 recommended static renewal bioassay was employed during the test .The test fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations separately for a period of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. At the end of each exposure period the liver tissues were isolated and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography for bioaccumulation study, while alterations observed in exposed fish were determined in the laboratory by light microscopy using standard technique of Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. Results: No mortalities occurred in any group during the test .The severity of the histological alterations observed in the liver of the treated fish reflects the concentrations of the toxicant, level of depuration and exposure durations .An indication that the regulating mechanisms of the liver has been overwhelmed resulting in the structural damages .The findings showed that the body could be liberated of contaminants after longer exposure period however, the effects on the bodyÃs tissues remain lethal.
Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus, Liver, Histopathology, Depuration, Endosulfan
AbstractObjective: In recent years, antibiotics have been used widely in the glob to prevent and treat bacterial diseases. They injected into eggs to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of disease, but the adverse effects of drugs have always been a major concern. There is little information available about the safety of tetracycline drugs in the embryonated eggs of the birds. The objective of this study was to evaluation of the effect of doxycycline on the viability of the quail embryo during the first trimester of the incubation period. Methods: Fertile quail eggs were divided into two equal treatment groups. The uninjected group and doxycycline-injected group whose individuals were injected with doxycycline injectable solution at a dosage of 10 mg per Kg egg-weight. Embryos monitored daily during incubation until day 6 after which; they were examined for viability. Results: Results showed that 72% of embryos were alive in the doxycycline-injected group. Based on findings, it is concluded that doxycycline at abovementioned concentration has no severe lethal effect on the quail embryo. So, doxycycline egg-injection can be used to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of the disease.
Keywords: Doxycycline, Embryo, Quail, Tetracycline
AbstractObjective: To evaluate the effect of chemical stimuli on germination and seedling growth of Caper (Capparis Spinosa) under drought stress. Methods: Factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment were performed. First factor of priming include three levels of acetylsalicylic acid (300, 200 and 100 mg/L), gibberellic acid levels (500, 250 and 125 ppm), ascorbic acid levels (300, 200 and 100 mg/L) and distilled water as a control and the second factor was drought stress levels (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa). Results: The results showed that priming increases germination rate, germination percent, root length, seedling length, shoot length and seed vigor index under drought stress. Among of levels used in priming, acetylsalicylic acid 200 mg/L has greatest effect on the germination of plants under drought stress. According to the survey results, priming with salicylic acid compared with other acids have more effect on germination characteristics of Caper under drought stress. Conclusions: Thus, using of this method can be useful for improving seed germination characteristics of plants in arid and semi-arid regions.
Keywords: Caper, Priming, Stress, Germination
AbstractObjective: A field experiment was conducted at Dorud region, Iran, during 2013. The aim of this research was study on effect of different biofertilizers and irrigation closed time on some agronomic characteristics of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Methods: The experimental design was factorial based on RCBD with three replications. Treatments were three irrigation closed time [Oct-6 (A1), Oct-13 (A2) and Oct -21 (A3)] and three nitrogen biofrtilizers [Nitroksin (B1), Nitrokara (B2), Biozar (B3) and control (B4)]. After treatments 3m2 in each plot harvested for leaf and root yield measurement. K%, Na% and N% were determined by Betalizer machine in Isfahan sugar beet factory. Results: Results showed that, the effect of all treatments on root yield was significant but all treatments were not significant on fresh leaf yield. Effect of different biofertilizers were significant on K% and N% and other treatment were not significant on them. The effect of any treatment was not significant on Na%. Among the nitrogen biofertilizers, Nitroksin and Biozar treatments has the highest K% and Nitrokara treatment has the lowest K% and Nitroksin treatment has the highest N% and Nitrokara treatment has the lowest N% and the differences of them were significant. In final we reviled that application of different biofertilizers and different irrigation closed time reviled that among the all treatment highest root yield was belonged at application of Biozar in Oct- 13 irrigation closed time and minimum root yield was belonged at application of Nitrokara in Oct-21 irrigation closed time.
Keywords: Biofertilizer, Root yield, Sugar Beet, Water
AbstractObjective: To study plants purification capability of Cu on two cultivars of vetch plant (Vigna Radiata) in contaminated soils and their effects on morphological characteristics. Methods: we conducted a completely randomized trial as factorial. Different concentrations of Cu (0, 150, 300, and 400 mg/ Kg of dried soil) were used. After four weeks growth on contaminated soil, parameters such as aerial parts height, roots, fresh and dry weight, as well as intake and aggregation levels of Cu in aerial parts and roots were measured in both cultivars of Sistan and Gohar. Results: Analysis results indicated that increased levels of Copper to decreased height of aerial parts and roots, and dry and fresh weight of both cultivars. Measuring of metal content showed that with increase in metals concentration in soils, their aggregation into aerial parts will be increased. Metal aggregation within aerial parts and roots was not different significantly, indicating metals transferring from roots to aerial parts. Conclusions: Results show that the vetch plant is able to purify soils and intake heavy metals such as Cu from it.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Morphologic, Vigna Radiata Cu, Phytoremediation
AbstractObjective: This study carried out to monitor the status of nutritional management and measuring difference between present and desired feeding system in dairy cattle of rural conditions of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. Methods: 334 rural flocks consisting of 1442 dairy cows were selected from seven towns of this province. The experiment was lasted for in a year and using completely randomized design. Data of feed intake and production obtained directly and measured monthly. Feed intake sample was collected from all dairy farms and then the amount of nutrients was determined in laboratory. Results: Results showed that type of township had significant effect on net energy lactation (NEL), crude protein percentage (%CP), as well as calcium and phosphor percentage (p<0.05). Highest mean of crude protein percentage (%13.10Â±0.59) and NEL (1.33Â±0.03 Mcal/d) belonged to Shahrekord township. Results showed that calcium and phosphor levels received in all units under study were less than the amounts recommended in National Research Council (NRC 2001). So that, Ardal township with %0.66Â±0.04 and Shahrekord with %0.38Â±0.01 respectively had highest levels of these two elements as compared to other township. Statistically significant difference was observed between various townships regarding the amounts of Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) (p<0.05). Numerically, highest and lowest % NDF belonged to Ardal township (%53.74Â±1.32) and Shahrekord township (%41.31Â±0.77), respectively. % ADF in Ardal, Borujen, Shalamzar, Shahrekord, Farsan, Kouhrang, and Lordegan were gained %37.24Â±0.97, %30.67Â±0.74, %31.60Â±1.06, %28.59Â±0.64, %29.66Â±0.85, %31.56Â±1.18, and %30.34Â±0.91, respectively. These indicate the imbalance of dairy cows rations in rural areas. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study indicate that the dairy cattle, based on the recommendations of the NRC, 2001 with a deficiency of protein, minerals and fiber are facing excess usage.
Keywords: Net energy lactation, Neutral detergent fiber, Acid detergent fiber, Dairy cow, Village
AbstractObjective: Many agronomic practices may need to be adjusted to maximize yield and quality of sugar beet. Thus agronomic package must be always modified. This sutdy was laid out for evaluation of changes in carbohydrates and sugar yield in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under different biofertilizers and irrigation closed time at Dorud region of Iran, during 2013. Methods: The experimental design was factorial based on RCBD with three replications. Treatments were three irrigation closed time [Oct-6 (A1), Oct-13 (A2) and Oct -21 (A3)] and three nitrogen biofrtilizers [Nitroksin (B1), Nitrokara (B2), Biozar (B3) and control (B4)]. After treatments 3m2 in each plot harvested for sugar measurement. Sugar was determined by Betalizer machine in Isfahan sugar beet factory. Results: The effect of any treatment on root and Molasses sugar was not significant but all treatments were significant on sugar yield and white sugar yield. Among the all treatment highest sugar yield and white sugar yield was belonged at application of Biozar in Oct-13 irrigation closed time and minimum sugar yield and white sugar yield was belonged at application of Nitrokara in Oct-21 irrigation closed time.
Keywords: Nitrogen biofertilizer, Carbohydrate, Sugar Beet, Sugar yield
AbstractObjective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment of physical education teachers in West Azerbaijan province. Methods: Research method is descriptive-correlation conducted using the field method. Statistical population includes physical education teachers in West Azerbaijan which are 1091 persons. The sample number according to Morgan table is calculated as 285 persons. Stratified random sampling method is used. Data collection tool is perceived organizational justice questionnaire and organizational commitment questionnaire. The perceived organizational justice questionnaire by Niehoff and Moorman contains 22 close-end questions. To measure organizational commitment, Meyer and Allen model containing 24 questions is used. Reliability coefficient of the perceived organizational justice and work ethics questionnaires through Cronbach's alpha is respectively, 0.834 and 0.896. Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between dimensions of organizational justice (including distributive justice, procedural justice, interactive justice and interpersonal justice) except for distributive justice, and organizational commitment at level of Pâ‰¤0.05, based on the F coefficient respectively with participation rates of 20%, 15% and 0.7%. Among the demographic variables (gender, marital status, employment history, education level), the level of education affected relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment and there was no significant difference between the elements of justice (distributive, procedural and interactive and interpersonal) in terms of gender, work experience, education, type of employment and working field.
Keywords: Perceived organizational, justice, commitment, Physical education, teachers