AbstractDrinking water has received considerable attention recently. However, misuse and mismanagement have resulted in a rapid and widespread decline in source-water quality and supply. Water quality guidelines can be used to identify constituents of concern in water, to determine the levels to which the constituents of water must be treated for drinking purposes. Membrane technology for the water cycle is playing an important role in the provision of safe water supply and treatment. The aim of this paper is to conduct chemical and microbiological analysis of water samples. The need for standards and guidelines in water quality stems from the need to protect human health. The results revealed that there were several areas polluted chemically by some heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Pb, Mn and Fe) and microbiologically by (Entamoeba Histolytica, Amoeba, Egg of Nematodes and Total count of Bacteria). We conclude and recommended that water treatment could see better membranes with both higher permeability and tighter cutoff. Removal of some chemical constituents must be done and sewage system projects are implemented in all towns and villages.
Keywords: Water quality, Guidelines, Membranes
AbstractThis study was conducted to assay the use of Saturejahortensis L. (savory) essential oil in the drinking water on broiler production and blood glucose, uric acid, creatinin and cholesterol. Four hundred and twenty day old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was used in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 5 replicate. Experimental treatments included: 1) control, 2) Tween (a solvent for dissolving savory essential oil in it and then in water) to the amount of 1000 ppm and 100, 200, 300, 400ppm savory essential oil were mixed in tween in drinking water for broiler chickens during the growth period, respectively for other 4 treatments.The results show that adding savory essential oil to the drinking water of broiler chickens at ages 1 to 42 days makes a significant decrease in live weight and feed intake by broiler chickens compared with the control group (P<0.05). Treatments had no effects on blood biochemical parameters of glucose, creatinine, uric acid and cholesterol. Based on the results of this investigation it seems that savory essential oil in drinking water had negative effects on broiler production.
Keywords: Savory essential oil, Broiler production, Blood biochemical parameters
AbstractA field experiment was conducted at wondo genet Agriculture research center under irrigated condition to determine the effect of intra and inter-row spacing on growth and yield of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) during the two successive seasons of 2013 and 2014. Factorial combinations of four intra-rows (40, 60, 80, 100 cm) and four inter-row plant spacingâ€™s (60, 80, 100, 120 cm) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Interaction effect of the two factors brought about significant variation on above ground biomass, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight and Essential oil yield. However, plant height, number of primary branch per plant and essential oil content were not influenced by the interaction effect. In this study, the maximum above ground biomass 72605 kg/ha, leaf fresh weight 9510 kg/ha, leaf dry weight 5392.7 kg/ha and Essential oil yield 23.39 kg/ha were attained due to spacing combination 40cm intra-row and 60cm inter-row spacing's. Therefore, it could be concluded that Artemisia annua could be planted at optimum spacing of 40 x 60 cm in Wondo genet area to attain maximum yield.
Keywords: Above ground biomass, Artemisia annua, Population density, Essential oil yield
AbstractThe goal of this experiment was to investigating of effects of different levels of nano chromium (N-Cr) in diet on egg quality and blood chromium content of japanese quail. Two hundred and forty laying japanese quail (45 day old) were randomly distributed to 20 experimental unit with 12 birds in cage pens of 40 Ã— 80 cm. Experimental treatments include: 1) control national research council (NRC, 1994) based diet (with no N-Cr), 2) 200 ppb, 3) 400 ppb, 4) 600 ppb and 800 ppb of N-Cr. Egg weight, egg internal quality (Huagh unit) and blood chromium were determined. Treatments influenced egg weight, yolk weight, albumen height, albumen weight, shell weight and thickness and Haugh unit (pâ‰¤ 0.05). But blood chromium content was not affected by levels of N-Cr (pâ‰¥ 0.05). In conclusion, it seems that N-Cr level of 800 ppb had further effects onjapanese quail egg quality.
Keywords: Japanese quail, Nano chromium, Egg quality, Haugh unit, bloodchromium
AbstractThis study was carried out to evaluate the effect of onion extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics and some blood metabolites in Ross and Cobb broiler chickens. One hundred sixty, 1-d-old broiler chickens (mean initial weight: 36.5 Â± 1 g) of male sex (Ross-308 and Cobb) were randomly conducted as randomized complete design with 4 treatment and 4 replication. The experimental groups included two treatments for Ross strain â€“ control (RC) and the group receiving basal diet + onion extract as 1 % in drink water (RO) - and two treatments for Cobb strain â€“control (CC) and the group receiving basal diet + onion extract as 1 % in drink water (CO). The chickens received food and water freely for 6 weeks. The performance parameters were measured during the experimental period. Blood samplings were performed for determine of blood parameters on 42 days of age. The results showed that use of onion extract lead to significant increase (p<0.05) of yield traits in both strain. Maximum daily weight gain (49.97 g), body weight (2135.94 g), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.82) were related to RO group. The using of onion extract resulted in decreasing of triglyceride and glucose and increasing of HDL of blood serum in both strain. In general, the results of this experiment showed that onion extract at the level of 1% in drink water can improve the functional and some blood parameters in Ross and Cobb broiler chickens.
Keywords: Onion extract, Growth performance, Blood metabolites, Ross and Cobb broilers
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the comparison between some seminal plasma parameters and age of the bull. Concentrations of various biochemical parameters like fructose, glucose, total proteins, albumin and inorganic ions including Na, K and Cl ions of seminal plasma of breeding Sahiwal bulls of different ageswere assessed. Methods: 40Sahiwal bullsdivided into 4 age groups.Semen (2ml pooled) from each bull was collected via artificial vagina. Seminal fructose was determined by Resorcinol method, while seminal glucose, totalprotein and albumin were estimated by automated clinical chemistry analyzer and inorganic ions were determined by MedicaEasylyte Na/K/Cl analyzer. Highest values of fructose, glucose, potassium and albumin were recorded in A Group bulls, On the other hand lowest values of fructose, glucose and potassium were recorded in D group, while albumin concentrations were similar in B and C groups bulls and lower in D group.Highest values of sodium and chloride were recorded in D group bulls, and lowest values of seminal sodium and chloride were recorded in group A bulls. Total proteins concentrations were similar in bulls of four age groups. Concentrations of these parameters showed high variability with respect to age in Sahiwal bulls which tends to clarify the variation of these seminal parameters with respect to age of bulls. This study suggested that seminal plasma of semen should be evaluated for these seminal parameters before the packing of semen for cryopreservation irrespective of the age and breed of the bull.
Keywords: Biochemical components, Seminal plasma, Sahiwal bull, Age
AbstractThis experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the performance sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in different agroecology of Ethiopia for morpho-agronomic and chemical traits at Wondo genet, Hawassa, Qoqa and Holleta for two years from 2011/2012 to 2012/2013 cropping seasons. Data on plant height, branch number/plant, fresh leaf weight/plant, fresh stem weight/plant, above ground biomass/plant, fresh leaf weight/ha, essential oil (EO) content and EO yield/ha were collected from four locations arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. Growing location demonstrated a significant influence (P<0.05) on the performance of all the parameters considered. With increasing year, the performance of Sage was significantly affected (P<0.05) only on three of the nine traits. The interaction between location and yea was significant for seven of the nine traits. The overall average value of plant height, branch number/plant, leaf number/plant, fresh leaf weight/plant, fresh stem weight/plant, above ground biomass/plant, fresh leaf weight/ha EO content and EO yield/ha of sage across the tested location and years ranged from 47.7-66.9 cm, 70.13-262.07, 619.7-4046.2, 159.13-506.31 g, 63.77- 279.93 g, 221.6-743.8 g, 2772-14064 kg, 1.11-1.70% and 30.67-240.03 kg, respectively. The maximum for all the characters were recorded at Hawassa and Wondo Genet except for branch number which was found tall at Holleta. Most of the characters are statistically the same over the testing years; however, plant height, branch number and leaf number/plant demonstrated a respective percent increase value of 21.3%, 50.19% and 71.98% during the first testing year.
Keywords: Essential oil, Ethiopia, Herb, Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)
AbstractThe extended postpartum period is the time which is usually given less emphasis regarding family planning by policy makers, service providers and users. However, it is a time with a rising risk of unwanted conception and an often-frustrated desire for contraceptive protection. Understanding the contraceptive behaviors, needs and preferences of women in this period is important the main objective of this study was to assess the contraceptive needs and practices of women during the extended postpartum period. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Kiramu Woreda. Four kebeles were purposively selected in the Woreda. A total of 120 women who were in the first year after delivery were interviewed by trained data collectors using a structured and pre tested questionnaire. Data were entered, cheeked and analyzed using Microsoft excel. The mean age of the study subjects was 30.25 with minimum age of 23 and a maximum of 37 and median age of 30 years. The prevalence of modern contraceptive Family Planning. Use was found to be 34(28.3%) among women in the extended postpartum period. Two third of women in the extended post partum period were not currently practicing any modern contraceptive method at the time of interview in spite of the doing sex. The reasons for non use were: fear of side effects in 68(56.7 %%) of the study subjects, 14(11.7 %%) due to lack of awareness of contraceptives, 4(3.3%) of them was due to fear of their husbands. In addition to this 77(64.2%) of the Women's started sex early before six weeks. This makes early pregnant before they saw any Menstruation. However, Only 34(28.3%) of women's started to prevent pregnancy during the intended postpartum period in the district. Knowledge and practice of Modern Family planning method in the district was very low. Therefore, continual health education contraceptive method mix during the extended post partum period should be revised by family planning program managers and providers is recommended for the implementation of the program.
Keywords: LAM, Extended postpartum period, Family planning, Lactation amenorrhea
AbstractEfficient tuberculosis treatment requires the use of good quality medicines. The present study developed a method of dosage by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with the dissolution of a combination of fixed doses of four anti-tuberculous (Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol Hydrochlorate, Rifampicine). The elaborated protocol was thereafter used to assess the quality of medicines commonly used in Benin as per the National Program for Tuberculosis Control (PNT). An analytical procedure was developed and validated by statistical tests of Cochran and Grubbs. Five lots of anti-tuberculous were randomly sampled (from India and tuberculosis screening and treatment centres in Benin). These lots were subjected to a number of tests including preliminary, disintegration, identifications and dissolution tests coupled with HPLC and dosages. The established procedure is demonstrated to be applicable with 80% accuracy. Results of the quality control revealed 100% conformity to all the tests for all tested drugs from all lots. The elaborated procedure is therefore applicable, rapid, effective and simple.
Keywords: Anti-tuberculous, Quality control, Analytical procedure
AbstractSchools have been considered as a place to development individualsâ€™ potential creativity. However, we should emphasis that in generally teaching process in our schools not preparing students to progress and high levels of explore sense. Unfortunately, we are steel facing with training in which lecture is dominance, students are passive, of them asked to memorized trusts mechanically, students idea are disregard andemphasis on traditional teaching methods. Such training dos not encouraged students to activities and learning. Therefore, aim of this studywhich performed by experimental or semi-experimental,was to analyzing effect of teachersâ€™ creativity training on studentâ€™s academic achievement in secondary schools. Statistical population of this research wasconsistedof secondary Students Tehran city; from that 384 students were selected as sample using cluster sampling. Datawasanalyzed by SPSSsoftware. The results showed that creativity educated for teacher effect on studentâ€™s academic achievement.
Keywords: Creativity education, Teachers, Academic achievement, Students
AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in Lorestan province during a 10 year period (2005-2014). We surveyed medical records of infected patients with hydatid cyst who had been operated in referral hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Several parameters were analyzed including age, gender, place of residency, hospitalization time, and the location of cysts. Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) affected more males 114 (52.52%) than females 84 (47.47%). The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 76 years, and the age group 20â€“ 30 years (27%) was the most affected. Cysts were localized in liver and lung in 62.63% and 37.37% of cases respectively and unusual cyst locations in kidneys, brain, pelvic area, spleen and spine was not observed. The average hospitalization time was 7 days. The distribution of residence in patients showed 124 (62.63%) of them to have urban origin and 74 (37.37%) were rural residents. Significant relationships were found between gender and cyst location, and place of residency and cyst location (p<0.05). Single organ involvement was found in 80% of the patients, and was more common in males (51.25%) than in females (48.75%). Farmers had the highest rate of infection (19.19%) followed by students with 18.69%. Because of the growing trend of hydatid cyst operation in Lorestan province, which may be due to many different reasons further studies are needed for evaluation of economic burden and risk factors for CE in this region.
Keywords: Echinococcosis, Epidemiology, Lorestan, Iran
AbstractObjective: The objective of this research is to examine PCB compounds in the Persian Gulf in the Southern Pars area. Methods: In the research, 3 stations were sampled: Asalouyeh Port, Kangan Site, Mehr Petro Kima Petrochemical. To sample water in the stations determined, one-liter sampling bottles of dark glass were used. In each station, samples were taken on three points. After recording sampling time and place, samples, with no adding any material, were transferred to the laboratory for measurements. PCB compound measurements were made by a GC-MAS apparatus. Limit of detection (LOD) was 71 pg/lit. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare PCB concentrations in water, as well as compare contamination rate in different stations. All above steps were performed by the SPSS software. Results: The results showed that average PCB compounds in Asalouyeh Port, Kangan Site and Mehr Petro Kimia Petrochemical, were 99.3, 105.5 and 110 Ng/L, respectively
Keywords: PCB compounds, Persian Gulf, Southern Pars
AbstractObjective: Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) is a perennial root crop that belongs to Araceace family. It is widely cultivated as a staple food in Africa, Asia and pacific Islands. Despite its importance, there is limited information on many aspects of the crop. In order to obtain data that can support improved and sustainable taro production, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of corm size and plant population density on the growth and corm yield of taro (variety Boloso-1) was investigated during 2007 cropping season. Methods: The experiment consisted of five-corm size (50, 51-100, 101-150, 151- 200 and 201-250 g) and five levels of planting densities (15037, 29629, 45454, 60606 and 74074 plants/ha) arranged in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Results: The results indicated that corm size had a highly significant (p<0.001) influence on plant height, leaf number, shoot number , leaf area index, corm and cormels number/plant, corm and cormels yield/ ha of taro. All the parameters were increased with increased in corm size. Plant population density exert significant influence (p<0.001) on all the studied parameter except on plant height and number of leaf/plant. The interaction effect of corm size and population density was none significant on all the studied parameters. The highest average corm yield/ha (44.07 t/ha) was achieved at a population of 60,606 plants/ ha using seed corms having 51-100 g. These could be recommended for farmers in production area similar with the study site.
Keywords: Corm size, Ethiopia, Growth, Plant Population, Density, Taro
AbstractObjective: This study is applied of descriptive correlative type run as field study using Billings and Moos (1981) standard methods questionnaires for stress coping and selfefficacy ideas of Sherer et al (1981). Methods: In this research, the census sampling has been done to select the students from Tehran based Science and Research Department of Islamic Azad University Natural Resources and Agricultural Faculty. The study statistical community consists of all graduate students (n=85) in extension and education of agricultural training and rural development fields in Tehran based Science and Research Department of Islamic Azad University Natural Resources and Agricultural Faculty. Regarding the student community being limited in the area of master level extension and education of agricultural training and rural development, all of them have been sampled by census method, out of whom 76 have been accessible. Data statistical analysis performed using computer software SPSS17. Results: The results derived from the independent variables influencing the dependent ones indicate a meaningful positive relationship between problem solving focus and motion focus and self-efficacy. The results extracted from the collective effect of the independent variables on the dependent one by multi regression imply the positive effect of emotion focus on the selfefficacy of students of Tehran Science and Research Department of Islamic Azad University Natural Resources and Agricultural Faculty.
Keywords: Stress, Stress management, Self-efficacy, Mental health, Islamic Azad University, Natural Resources
AbstractObjective: Germination is one of the most important stages of plants growth that affected by environmental stresses, especially drought and salinity. Methods: In order to study of Artichoke germination under different levels of salinity and drought, two separate experiments were performed. The four levels of salinity by NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 mM) with three replications and five levels of drought by PEG (0, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) with three replications were used based on completely randomized design. Results: Results showed that drought and salinity stresses reduced significantly germination rate, shoot length, root dry Weight and shoot dry Weight. In salinity condition, there was insignificant difference between treatments for germination percent, but in drought condition, there was significant difference. Moisture range optimum for germination was determined non-stress to 20% PEG concentration. It seemed that among traits, shoot length was more sensitive than others to salinity and drought stresses. It can be concluded that Artichoke can tolerate salinity up to 150 Mm, but in drought conditions it cannot germinate in 25% PEG.
Keywords: Artichoke, Drought, Germination, Salinity
AbstractObjective: Alpha-glucosidase, as a carbohydratase catalyses the liberation of alphaglucose from the nonreducing end of some carbohydrates from foods in digestive tract. Consequently, retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes is one of the therapeutic approaches to decrease the postprandial hyperglycemia. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to natural products like plants, as a reliable source for bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to find new potent inhibitors for Alpha-glucosidase among plant extracts. Methods: Hexan extracts of 60 plants species were screened for their Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/mL concentration. Acarbose, dissolved in buffer, was used as a positive control. Every experiment was done in triplicate. Descurania Sophia (L.) Webb & Berth, Fumaria vailantii Loisel, Ferula Haussknechti Wolf ex Rech,Haplophyllum acutifolium (DC.)G.Don, Isatis cappadociaca Desv., Eremostachys laevigata Bunge, Silene aucheriana Boiss exhibited more than 60% alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.. Results: Among them, Descurania Sophia, Fumaria vailantii and Ferula haussknechti exhibited significant alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.9 Âµg/ml, 24.55 Âµg/ml and 2.71 Âµg/ml, respectively. Because of its high inhibitory activity and low IC50, Descurania Sophia extract would be interesting for further studies.
Keywords: Alpha-glucosidase, Inhibitor, Plant extract, Hexane, Diabetes mellitus
AbstractObjective: Malfunction in the intimacy, marital conflict and early maladaptive schemas have always been considered as one of the principal reasons of couplesâ€™ divorce. Employment of effective therapies may help in the improvement of couplesâ€™ problems and decrease of divorce. Methods: The present research employed a single-subject research design and selected 3 women suing for divorce from among all the couples referred to family court centers. The research tools included Young schema Questionnaire Long form, Marital Conflict Questionnaire, Intimacy in Marriage Questionnaire and Marital Conflict Questionnaire. Results: Results indicated that schema therapy is effective in the increase of intimacy, decrease of conflict and early maladaptive schemas among the women who have sued for divorce.
Keywords: Schema therapy, Marital conflicts, Intimacy, Divorce
AbstractObjective: Different categories are available for estimating of radiation dose. Radioisotopes with the same energy and almost the same physical properties have similar effects. Monte Carlo technique is a computerized method based on mathematical simulation of physical processes. The main purpose of this study is to show that beta particles are not able to penetrate deep into the water. also difference between GATE and MCNP code is not significant. Methods: In this study, a digital form of the cylinder mathematical phantom was constructed and used with GATE and MCNPX to calculate the phantom dose. The voxel-based anthropomorphic Zubal phantom was used to model a typical adult male. The equivalent effective dose derived for the electrons of Er-169, P-32, and Y-90 with GATE and MCNPX. The results were compared to the HOTSPOT data. Results: The GATE and MCNPX difference was negligible. However, difference at this level is acceptable and we can conclude that GATE produces almost similar results as MCNPX. In this study, we tried to set the physical framework, calculate the penetration depth via dosimetry, using the results of the two simulator codes. In the first part, we applied the results of the HotSpot dosimetry software for validation. Conclusion: The GATE and MCNPX difference was negligible.
Keywords: Monte-Carlo method, Radioisotopes/pharmacology, Beta particles, Radiation dosage, Software validation
AbstractObjective: The growing resistance of different bacteria to antibiotic chemical drugs have become the global issue. This investigation is the first study of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos. The current research was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of essential oils and hydroalcoholic extract extracted from aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos, native species. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. was assessed by the GC and GC/MS analysis. Twentynine different compounds, constituting 86.61% of the oil, were recorded, among which the major compounds were Î±-Pinene (15.5%), Linalool (11.7%), Sandaracopimaradiene (5.9%) and Safranal (8.8%). The invitro antibacterial activity of the extracted essential oil was evaluated against some Gram positive and negative bacteria. Results: According to the obtained results from the current research, the essential oil of Vaccinium arctostaphylos showed the antibacterial activities against most of the bacteria tested, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumonia, contrasted to Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to the essential oil, the hydroalcoholic extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos did not display the antibacterial effects against the mentioned microorganisms.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Essential oil, Secondary metabolites
AbstractObjective: Molds produce poisons called mycotoxins,OTA is one of the most relevant mycotoxins which is generally produced by Aspergillus, its presence in food and feed products being regulated in many countries. Methods: From the first May to the last October2011,sampling was done according to"CBS" instructions for indoor and outdoor situations. Isolates were identified and recorded in the laboratory on fungal biomass prepared a sample group and crude cell extracts were prepared in the laboratory and Ochratoxin was produced by fungal isolates in cell extracts was measured by using ELISA. Results: Significance rate is higher than 0.05.Thus the changes in Ochratoxin production donâ€™t depend on various levels of geographic area ,it can be stated that in the Aspergillus species studied in this geographic area,it is expected to observe Ochratoxin production in 2.5-5ppb range. Discussion: According to the fact that maximum limit toxin in food stocks is 5 ppb,it must be greatly noticed into consideration.While it must be taken greatly into attention that some of isolated studied in the area produced the toxin in great amounts (20-25ppb).That may be dangerous for health significance of correlation between the toxin rate and the original province where sampling of studied isolates was performed is 100% for Guilan and Mazandaran and 99% for Golestan provinces.It may be stated that it is not possible to find as specific area with considered field conditions to be the growth area or origin of a given Aspergillus species with a given density of their presence or their dependence to a area or dependence of their classification the section of subgenus groups in the standard rules for classification of Aspergilli.
Keywords: Ochratoxin, Aspergillus, Toxigenic activity, Biomass, ELISA