AbstractObjective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing studentÃs achievement motivation. Statistical population of this research consisted of Agriculture Ms.c students in Tehran university (N=712). Methods: A random sampling method was used to collect data From 175 students applying Cochran's formula. The main tool to collect data was a researcher made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was approved, by a panel of experts, and its reliability, was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient (Â· = 0/85). Descriptive analysis performed in two sections using SPSS Win21. Results: Results showed that studentÃs self-esteem were in medium level. Results of factor analysis showed that six factors as: effort, goal-oriented, perseverance, explicit, specialty and abilities, explained the total of 45/79 percent of the variance in the achievement motivation variables.
Keywords: Self-esteem, Perseverance, Factor analysis
AbstractAccording to flexibility of pneumatic conveying systems with respect to other types of transmission systems, this system has wide application in industry and agriculture processes. One important application of this system is in the loading and unloading tankers and powdery bulk materials such as trucks carrying cement, plaster and sand. Conveying efficiency is associated with pressure, which increases the pressure drop in the pipe, operational efficiency will be reduced. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation to predict and evaluate the influence of the pipes type and the inlet mass flow rate on the pressure drop and velocity fields during pneumatic conveying of wheat. The numerical solutions were carried out using spreadsheet and commercial CFD code Ansys Fluent 14.5. The CFD simulations predict excellently the pressure drop and velocity field under different pipe types and inlet mass flow rate. Pressure drop were estimated to be 2780, 3120, and 3360 pa for mass flow rates of 4.33, 5.77 and 8.66 kg/s respectively in Steel pipes. Also there were 2940, 3240 and 3390 for polyethylene pipe that showed the maximum pressure drop in polyethylene pipes is higher than the steel pipes.
Keywords: Pneumatic, Velocity fields, Computational fluid, dynamic, Radial velocity
AbstractObjective: The role and importance of urban green space in urban life and physical stability and effectiveness of the system returns to different urban ecological, economic and social, it is undeniable, As far as public green space per capita in cities and urban management planning program is considered one of the main discussion. Urban green spaces should be one of the most essential factors to take into account the sustainability of natural life in new urbanism. In other words endless struggle between application and technology development on the one hand, and preserving and protecting the vital elements such as water, soil, air and green space has been on the other hand. In such circumstances, enjoying nature and greenery, living natural resources pleasant car to lead a life of peace to return to the sustainable urban development. So that the views of city and urban environmental safety more than ever regarded as sustainable development is one of the necessities. Methods: This article titled approach to the sustainable development of cities in the promotion of environmental quality with green space process of endogenous development in Marand developed and followed it. Results: According to urban green space, or to be more precise, according to the levels of man-made urban land with vegetation, producing oxygen, temperature adjustment, the absorption of pollutants, stabilize slopes, increase moisture and ultimately improve the ecological efficiency the quality of the urban environment and attractive space for social interaction and recreation for the society provides and the results reflect the fact that the city of Marand as a fitness center cities in recent years under the influence of various factors on the issues and problems faced. Therefore urban green spaces, urban planning and urban management is a necessary component. Marand in extreme poverty can be seen in terms of per capita green space and the size of the population and increase the amount of green space will be reduced and whatever the size of the population and increase the amount of green space will be reduced.
Keywords: Development of cities, Green space, Promotion of environmental
AbstractObjective: Flowering Time (FT) in cereals controlled by genes that had a main factor on plant development. Methods: Genetic and phenotypic diversity of four flowering time genes (FT2, FT3, FT4, Ppd-H1) in 19 genotypes of cultivated and wild barley was evaluated and a total of 107 alleles were amplified. Genotypes based on days to flowering time and molecular data were grouped into early, middle and late maturity. Results: Molecular data analysis showed that 83% of variety was observed within populations and 17% was related to among population. Neis the maximum and minimum genetic distance between early - late (0.629) and earlyÃ±middle was (0.0224). The average of allelic polymorphism was 83.33%. Also, the results of Spearman correlation for markers the number of days to flowering indicated that Ppd-H1 marker has the most significant negative correlation with days to flowering that prefigures the dominant allele role of this marker to reduce the number of days to flowering. Generally, the results of this research showed that there is a high genetic and phenotypic variation for specific markers that affected flowering time in barley. Also, genotypes with dominant allele of Ppd-H1 (9bp, deletion) compared to other genotypes show earlier flowering in response to the condition of long days, that it is an important feature for selection of superior genotypes in response to the stress conditions at the end of season.
Keywords: Barley, Genetic variety, Flowering time, Correlation, Cluster analysis
AbstractObjective: The main objective of this research was estimation of genetic parameters for five consecutive measurements of egg weights in Isfahan fowl using multi trait model and random regression models. Methods: The statistical models included generationhatch as a fixed effect, weeks of age as a covariate and additive genetic and individual permanent environmental effects as random effects. The date set included records of egg weight measured from 21 weeks to 84 weeks of age that collected during 15 generations from 1986 to 2011. For acquiring of best accuracy of variance components and determining appropriate model, used heterogeneous residual variances with 5 classes and considering different orders of Legendre polynomial and accordingly eight different models were compared. Finally, the model with fourth order for additive genetic effect and third order for individual permanent environmental effect was selected as best model. Results: Results showed high genetic correlations of the 32 weeks of age with all other ages also its heritability indicated that it could be the optimum period for breeding.
Keywords: Egg weight, Genetic parameters, Isfahan flow, Multitrait model, Random regression, model
AbstractBackground: Environment destroyed and reduce the living place especially in urban place become an important mater these days ,improving environment need a lot of think together like economic, realigns and environment changes ,urban tourism is one of the most important and complicate behavior in town. Objective: In researchers look tourism have a large effect on economic, realign and social behavior in big city. Increasing tourism can have a big effect for city people in all the world and Iran .and its steel growing. Propose of this research know the program of improving tourism in Kurdistan of Iran. Methods: We ask question or use question paper from Kurdistan tourism government that include 200person of tourism worker. We use T-Test and ANOVA analyze and Pearson test. Also we use SWOT for estimate advantages and disadvantage of research. Results: Achieve by the results Marginal market, beautiful environment, historic place and culture are most positive tourism parameter but there is not suitable hotel or transportation this can have bad effect on tourism. Tourists say that marginal markets are most interesting place in Kurdistan; this can be effective in economic mater. The Suggestions about this research are Efforts to create a national determination and belief in the necessity of the development of tourism as a substitute for oil, the need for a regional approach to planning, development, management and promotion of tourism, Enhancing the quality of human resources employed in the tourism sector and the development of education in this area, Attempt to reduce the administrative formalities for issuing visas to tourists, tourism and other areas of the face.
Keywords: Urban tourism, Environmental, improvement, Desired pattern
AbstractObjective: This field experiment was laid out in order to study on effect of Nano and Bio fertilizers on yield and yield components of tomato (Lycopersicone sculentum L.) during the growing seasons 2013- 2014. Methods: The experiment was laid out in a factorial based on randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were K nanofertilizer in five levels such as (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg.ha-1) and pure Azot in five levels such as (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1). Results: Results showed that the application of humic acid and nitrogen fertilizer were significant of all traits of tomato but effect of humic acid on fruit length was not significant. Application of 400 kg per ha K nanofertilizer had the highest plant height and stem diameter. Also results showed that application of 300 kg per ha K nanofertilizer had the highest number of fruit per plant, fruit weight, fruit diameter and fruit yield. However application of nitrogen fertilizer increased yield and yield components of tomato. In final results of the present study reviled that application of K nanofertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer increased yield and yield components of tomato.
Keywords: Nano fertilizer, Nitrogen fertilizer, Tomato
AbstractObjective: The Asmari Formation is characterised by alternation thick carbonate and marl sequence of the Oligocene- Miocene in the Zagros Basin, southwest of Iran that were deposited on the shelf of Eastern Paratethys. Methods: This formation is exposed at Tang-e-Khoshk in the Fars subcoastal zone with a thickness of 286 m comprising alternation of medium and thick to massive bedded carbonates, marlylimestone and marl. The age of the Asmari Formation in the study area is the Oligocene (Ruplian&Chattian). Results: Ten microfacies are defined, characterizing a gradual shallowing upward trend; the related environments are as follows: open marine (MF1, 2&3), shoal (MF4) and lagoon (MF5, 6&7). A carbonate ramp platform is suggested for the depositional environment of the Asmari Formation. MF 1, 2, 3 &4 are characterized by the occurrence of large and small foraminifera representing a represent a deeper fair weather wave base of a middle ramp setting. MF 5, 6& 7 with large particles of different bioclast debis and algae, shallow-water setting of an inner ramp.
Keywords: Tang-e-Khoshk, Asmari formation, Oligocene, Biostratigraphy, Carbonate ramp
AbstractObjective: In order to study genetic variation and effect of drought stress on grain yield and some morphological traits in chickpea, an experiment was conducted on 64 genotypes during 2013-2014 cropping season at deputy of Kermanshah Sararood Dry Land Agricultural Research Institute, located on the western part of Iran. Methods: The experimental design was a randomized lattice design with tow replications under two complementary irrigation and dryland conditions. Six drought tolerance indices including stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity index (MP), stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), harmonic mean productivity (HMP), were calculated and adjusted based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). Results: Results of ANOVA under two complementary irrigation and dryland conditions revealed significant differences among genotypes for YLD, NPMP and NSPP. In dryland condition all of tolerance indices except SSI*TOL have significant negative correlation with SSI index and the rest of indices except TOL*YS, HMP*TOL and YI*TOL show positive correlation. The first two components explained 95.8% of total variation between the data. Based on biplot the genotypes 40 and 63 were superior genotypes under both stress and non-stress conditions. These genotypes had stable performance in the circumstances of low sensitivity to drought stress. Genotypes 29, 55, 56, 57, 45 and 16 had a relatively low yield and they are sensitive to drought stress. In conclusion, this study showed that the effect of drought stress on grain yield was varied which suggested genetic variability for drought tolerance in this materials. Therefore, breeders can select better genotypes based on indices and a combination of different methods of selection.
Keywords: Biplot, Chickpea, Drought indices, Grain yield, Stress Tolerance Score, (STS)
AbstractObjective: Economic analysis was performed for the main horticultural crops in Buin Zahra (pistachio, peach, nectarine, and apple). There were dependent and independent variables in this research. Methods: The independent variables were planting method (mechanized and conventional), land area used for fruit production, and land ownership. The maximum energy used, mostly in the form of fossil fuels, was in peach production. The two-stage simple random sampling method was employed. Random sampling is, in fact, the easiest sampling method, and the obtained results are reliable and generalizable to the whole society if the sampling principles are followed. Results: Results showed the best economic performance indicator (2.55 with the profit to cost indicator of 2.93) belonged to pistachio orchards, while apple, peach, and nectarine (with economic performance indicators of 1.83, 1.67, and 1.27, respectively) ranked second to fourth. The maximum ratio of profit to cost (2.93) was that of pistachio, which also had the largest energy ratio (with apple and peach ranking second and third with 2.15 and 2.08, respectively).
Keywords: Economic analysis, Ghazvin, Horticultural crops, Mechanization
AbstractObjective: Today people are aware of the important role of agriculture as a vital source in their life. Development in agriculture and making healthy food for human, needs trained man. Vocational schools and agricultural training centers provided the first stage for arriving at this purpose. One of the reasons for the weak influence of agricultural training centers in creating occupational opportunities for students is lack of motivation in students that prevents acquiring skills and technologies that are necessary for doing agricultural occupations and businesses. Methods: Therefore, this research devoted to introducing motivations of students in vocational schools and agricultural training centers of Kermanshah for education in the field of agriculture with the method of descriptive-correlation. Sampling method was random-classification approach (based on training centers and agricultural school centers) and the number of each class members was specified using appropriate appointment method. To specify motivation factor among students discovery factor Analysis (EFA) method was used. Results: Analyzing data by SPSS software show that there is no difference between students in vocational schools and agricultural training centers about training motivation in the field of agriculture so that: the most motivation of students in agricultural training centers toward education in the fields of agriculture is interest in promotion of information and knowledge about agriculture and acquiring skills and technology for the future occupation. Also, most of these students are interested in continuing this field of study in the university. In the case of vocational school students, the first motivation of these students in educating in the field of agriculture is acquiring skills and technology for the future job and most of these students are interested in continuing their studies in the field of agriculture.
Keywords: Motivation, Student, Agricultural school, Agricultural training, center
AbstractObjective: Using Megavoltage photons generated by medical linear accelerator is a common modality for the treatment of malignant. The crucial problem for using photon beams >8MV is the photoneutron yields that increase the risk of secondary cancer that treated with high-energy photon beams. The contaminated neutrons produced in different components of the accelerator head and rely on many parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of field size on the neutron dose equivalent in center and far from it at the Elekta Sl 75/25 18 MV linear accelerator. Methods: Neutron dosimetry was carried out with CR-39 films with using of chemical etching technique. The measurement was done at isocenter, 25 cm and 50 cm far from it at 100 cm SSD for squared field with 5 up to 30 cm side. Results: The results revealed that the neutron dose equivalent increased with increasing field sizes especially for 5*5 cm2 field size. It was decreased with increasing distance from the isocenter. Conclusion: The effect of field size on neutron contamination depend on amount of field aperture where in small field size 5Ã—5 cm2 less variation need for significant change but for larger field size 10Ã—10 cm2 this variation must be larger. The contaminated neutron outside photon field is independent of field size.
Keywords: Medical linear accelerator, Photon field size, Neutron contamination, CR-39 dosimeter
AbstractIn this paper, Gaussian and elliptic high pass filters are analyzed for image sharpening qualitatively and quantatively . The filters are implemented in frequency domain using matlab software. Experiments are performed to compare the performance of both the filters ,processed images are presented. The results demonstrate that elliptic yields better results.
Keywords: Gaussian, Elliptic, Image sharpening, Frequency domain, High pass filter
AbstractObjective: The purpose of this study was to analyzing the role of motivation factors in HerzbergÃs theory on teacherÃs job satisfaction. Methods: The population of this study consisted of elementary school teachers in Talesh city (N=850), that 265 of them selected as the sample by using the systematic random sampling. The data collection tool was questionnaire that it's face and content validity from different sectors were approved by panel of experts and thatÃs reliability approved by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (Â· = 0.78). Results of descriptive statistics showed that teacherÃs job satisfaction in general were in the low level (36.2 percent). Results: Results of correlation coefficient indicated that there was a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction and job feedback, job characteristics, opportunities for advancement, appreciation and recognition, training and development and responsibility. Results of stepwise multiple regressions showed that appreciation and recognition, job characteristic, job feedback and opportunities for advancement variables in four steps entered into the regression equation and were explained 69/6% of job satisfaction variance.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, Work motivation, Talesh City, Herzberg theory
AbstractInformation and communication technologies are the most recent scientific achievements of mankind's ability seems to have much to offer society and are expected to be useful in solving the problems of human society. Many around the world believe that accelerates the process of adjustment in the exchange of knowledge and information through information and communication technologies a vital role in achieving sustainable development, human resources development and will play. Nowadays, information and communication technology (ICT), as the most important factor in the development of the world is hardware. Gains resulting from the negligence of such a life are incorporated it comes in different divisions. Due to the increasing information and communication Fnavrhay ICT in cities and the rise of the information age, the need for applying this technology to achieve sustainable development is strongly felt. In this research discusses the necessity of using information technology in urban management issues in order to achieve sustainable development: social, economic, environmental and physical towns mentioned. Documents and content analysis is a research method and Strategic SWOT descriptive model to evaluate internal and external opportunities and threats of the use of ICT in cities is discussed. Of this research is that the coordination of information and communication technologies lack of infrastructure development with other programs and provides technical and socio-economic impacts of sustainable development will be a lot.
Keywords: Sustainable urban, ICT strategic, SWOT model
AbstractObjective: Zayandehrood habitat has economical and environmental importance in central plateau of Iran and it performs a vital role for habitants, agriculture section and the industries which are located along river bed. So current research has been done to measure the contamination of heavy metals, its changes along the river route and defining the important and effective regions on this contamination. It was defined and stations of sampling along the zayandehrood river route to gain this aim. Methods: The samples were taken from the depth of 30 to 50 cm of the substances which are located in river bed. In each sample, the absorbable thickness and whole metals of Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Nickel and Copper were measured. The maximum thickness for all studied elements in this station was observed after Isfahan city (Isfahan-Yazd Highway Bridge). Among these heavy elements, the thickness absorbance amount for lead metal in 6 stations was in toxic amount. The thickness of Cobalt in 5 stations and Copper in one station was in toxic amount. The absorbance amount of lead in Dorche bridge was 2.5 times and in Yazd-Isfahan Highway Bridge was 3.5 times more than the toxic amount. Results: According to the results of this research and according to other researcherÃs studies, Cadmium metal which has special importance because of its pollution on the environment has pot and toxicity along the river route, but the studies have been done via other researches in Gavkhooni pond, have registered the toxicity amount of this element. we can conclude that Isfahan city and also the region which is the center of big industrial factories near Nekouabad Dam and Polchalleh, have the most pollutant effects on zayandehrood habitants.
Keywords: Pollution, River bed, Zayandehrood, Heavy metals, Environment
AbstractObjective: Understanding climate effects on crop yield has been a continuous endeavor aiming at improving farming technology and management strategy, minimizing negative climate effects, and maximizing positive climate effects on yield. Methods: In order to evaluate agroclimate of Corn cultivation throughout the selected substations at Kermanshah province in this current investigation, the statistics data related to daily temperatures within a 10- year statistical period were employed. Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP) technique, Growing Degree Day (Active Day Temperature), and thermal gradient methods have been adapted for computation and agroclimatic analysis. Results: The results of this study indicate that the optimal date for cultivation of Corn in high and cold- weather lands (Kermanshah and Eslamabad West) is the of June. Temperature gradient analysis and DOP technique in various heights at the studied region may show that there is one month postponement in deviation from the optimum conditions for optimal cultivation per 100m increase in height of given region. This point is important in terms of date of cultivation and production of commercial product. According to the acquired farming calendar, of June is the most appropriate time for cultivation in this area and thus date of harvest will be the end of September.
Keywords: Agroclimate, Corn, Deviation from, Optimum Percentage, (DOP), Kermanshah
AbstractObjective: An increasing number of studies have reported on shifts in timing and length of the growing season, based on phonological, satellite and climatologically studies. Changes in the timing and length of the growing season (GSL) may not only have far reaching consequences for plant and animal ecosystems, but persistent increases in GSL may lead to long-term increases in carbon storage and changes in vegetation cover which may affect the climate system. With the aim of these study is an investigation the trend of time changes of starts and end season growing length in west of Iran. Methods: This investigation has presented 49 years inputs of temperature from 8 synoptic stations in west of Iran. Homogenize the series using run-test experiment were determined and accomplished in the way of auto regression from rebuilding of missed data by way of man-Kendal test the randomness of data was examined and the series that had change or trend with %5 confidence interval were recognized then with graphically man-Kendal test and moving mean of 5 year, circumstances and the start time of trend or changes were determined and the values of changes were calculated. Results: The results show more changes in series associating with start and end of temperatures.
Keywords: Growing Season, Climate change, Man-Kendal, West of Iran
AbstractAgriculture has a key role to play in reducing poverty and hunger in many developing countries. About 75% of the world's poor live in rural areas and most are dependent on agriculture and related activities in the rural economy. For this reason the benefits for developing countriesÃ farmers have been shown to be substantial if OECD member countries reformed their agricultural policies. The issue of how OECD membersÃ agricultural policies join-up with their development commitments and policies requires decision makersÃ undivided attention as the UN General Assembly meets to review progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals and as trade negotiations progress under the Doha Development Round. At the global level the dependence of the developing world on agricultural exports creates many problems. World demand for these products tends to be both income and price inelastic. As a result, for many crops, of which the supply is also inelastic in the short-run, the growth rate of export earnings is held to a relatively low level and prices fluctuate. Efforts at diversification and commodity stabilization can be successful only if undertaken under viable international agreements. Empirical evidence on the terms of trade of the developing vis-â€¡-vis the developed country leaves at least a presumption that they are not improving. This paper has reviewed the economic and management literature related to the role of agriculture in develop
Keywords: Agriculture, Management, Economic, Development, Policy
AbstractObjective: The purpose of this study was to identify affecting factors on studentsÃ environmental protection behavior (SIPB). Methods: Statistical population of this research consisted of 1480 students in Alborz agricultural technical higher education centers. A stratified random sampling method was used to select 145 student applying Cochran's formula. The main tool to collect data was a researcher made questionnaire that Content validity of the questionnaire was approved, by a panel of experts and Exploratory factor analysis and its reliability, was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient (a = 0.71- 0.83). Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Results of factor analysis showed that four factors: Environmental attitudes, environmental concerns, knowledge and educational content, explained 50.92 percent of the variance in the Protective behavior variables. Results of correlation analysis indicated a positive statistically significant relationship between Environmental attitudes, environmental concerns, knowledge and educational content.
Keywords: Environmental, Behavior, Attitudes, Knowledge, Protective behavior