AbstractObjective: The orange-red spectrum of the skin of electric yellow (Labidochromis caeruleus) is one of the idealistic and necessary schemas sought by aquarists and commercial producers. In this study, the effect of live foods meal on the skin coloration of juvenile electric yellow was examined. Methods: 270 fish with an average living body weight was 0.42 Â± 0.11 g, and average total length was 3.3 Â± 0.35 cm. Their sex was not taken into consideration. . The fish were fed twice in the morning and afternoon by 3-5 percent of the biomass for 8 weeks. The six different treatments (three replicates/treatment) used in the experiment were used. Skin color was measured in below the dorsal fin of all fish. Measurements were recorded at the end of the feeding trial using a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR400. Results: At the end of the trial, the carotenoid supplemented diets significantly increased the values of redness (a*), yellowness (b*), and chroma (C*), and decreased the values of lightness (L*) and hue (Hoab) on the tail, body, and head areas (p<0.05). luminosity (L*) and hue (HÂ°ab) were less in fishes fed the diets with live foods and astaxanthin than in fishes fed the control diet with no pigment sources (p<0.05). yellowness (b*), and Chroma (C*) were greater in fish fed the culex and were less in fish fed the control diet(p<0.05). Results show that live foods used in this trial can be used as an alternative natural carotenoid source in electric yellow diets.
Keywords: Culex larvae, Chironomus larvae, Live food, Artemia, Pigment, Yellow fish
AbstractObjective: In this study, the effect of diet food (soybeans, egg yolk and chicken manure) on biomass weight and body composition (the amount of protein, fat, moisture and ash) Chironomid larvae were examined. Methods: For this purpose, 2.5 grams of food per Coconut considered in the period, with three replicates and Chironomid larvae during the period of 15 days in plastic pans were kept in nutrition. Results: The results showed that larval growth Chironomid was significantly influenced by the different diets. Between dietary treatments, larvae fed chicken manure treatment had highest average weight and best body composition (protein and fat) fed the treated egg yolk and no significant difference was found with other dietary treatments (P<0.05). As a result of this study showed that different diets influenced on the larval body weight and body composition. yolk eggs and poultry manure due to easy availability and low cost can be recommended for mass rearing of larvae Chironomid.
Keywords: Chironomid larvae, Body biochemical, Composition, Biomass
AbstractObjective: The objective of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of methionine for chicken embryo.In recent years, amino acids are used in veterinary medicine for many purposes. They injected into hatching eggs to increase chick body weight and performance at hatch, but the adverse effects of amino acids have always been a major concern. There is scant information available about the pathological alterations of amino acids in the chicken embryonated eggs. Methods: Fertile chicken eggs were divided into two equal treatment groups as follows: phosphate buffered saline-injected group and methionine-injected group whose individuals were injected with a methionine solution at a dosage of 10 mg per Kg egg-weight. Embryos were reincubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Results: The germination of inoculated seed was significantly reduced, germ tubes of microconidia penetrated all parts of the thick, complex seed testa, and seed contents were destroyed. Pathogenicity tests indicated that F. solani caused lesions of black soft rot and complete deterioration within 5-7 days (100%). They also attacked Orobanche seeds, arresting their germination and causing maceration of non-germinated and germinated seeds after 5-7 days of incubation. This is the first investigation of the effects of F. solani on host plant interactions with broomrape in melon.
Keywords: Chicken, Embryo, Histopathology, Methionine
AbstractObjective: In soil habitats, mesostigmatic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) are among the most important predators of smallarthropods and nematodes. Methods: A study was carried out during 2009-2010 to identify theirfauna in Khorramabad county, Western Iran. Soil samples were taken from different regions. Mites were extracted by BerleseTullgren funnel and cleared in nesbit fluid. Microscopic slides were prepared using Hoyer's medium. Different species of some families of Mesostigmata were collected. 21 species of 12 families have been identified. Among them, 8 genera and 8 species are the first records for Lorestan province fauna that marked with one asterisk. Results: In the present study 21 species belong to 19 genera and 12 families were collected and identified of which eight species are new records for Lorestan Province fauna that are marked by an asterisk.
Keywords: Lorestan province, Edaphic mites, Mesostigmata, Iran
AbstractObjective: In order to investigate effects of different concentration of gibberlic acid (GA3), kentin and Putrescinepoly amine, on germination of three cultivars of wheat under salinity stress. Methods: The experiment was carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with four replicates in laboratory of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, department of agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch in 2014. The first factor was four levels of salinity including S1: 3.78, S2: 5.95, S3: 10.25 and S4: 12.87 ds/m, the second factor was three cultivar of spring wheat including V1: Tajan, V2: Arg and V3: Pishtaz. The third factor was six level of hormone including H0: control, H1: GA3 150 mg/L, H2: Kentin 150 mg/L, H3: GA3 150 mg/L + Kentin 150 mg/L, H4: Putrescine 2.5 mmol/L, H5: GA3 150 mg/L + Kentin 150 mg/L + Putrescine 2.5 mmol/L. Coleoptile and Cleorhiza length, Cleorhiza number, Coleoptile, Cleorhiza and Seedling Dry Weight, Tissue Water Content (TWC), Germination Percent and Number of Damaged Seeds were measured. Results: Analysis of variance showed that Coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, seedling dry weight and TWC affected by salinity, hormone and Cultivar at 1% of probability level, but not significant in other properties. In general, results of this experiment showed that application of different treatments of hormone and poly amine had no significant effect on reduction of salinity effect in germination process.
Keywords: Wheat, Germination, Gibberlic, Kentin, Putrescine, Salinity
AbstractObjective: In order to study the effect of drought stress, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) foliar application on Hill reaction and photosynthetic pigments. Methods: Experiment was done as factorial on the basis of completely randomized design in 4 replications. Irrigation in 3 levels (FC, FC and FC), salicylic acid in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM) and jasmonic acid in 2 levels (0 and 50 ÂµM). Results: The results indicated that, the effects drought stress, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on Hill reaction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, â€š-carotene and Xanthophyll were significant. Drough stress increased the content of â€š-carotene (1.83 ) and Xanthophyll (2.60 ). The 50 (ÂµM) foliar application of jasmonate and salicylic acid under normal irrigation condition gained to maximum amounts of Hill reaction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, â€š-carotene and xanthophyll. According to the results, exogenous salicylic acid and jasmonic acid application can improve drought tolerance in moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.).
Keywords: Drought stress, Jasmonic acid, Moldavian dragonhead, Salicylic acid
AbstractObjective: Due to rich resources of phenolic components such as anthocyanin and flavonoids, grape has grabbed lots of attention. Antioxidants are the frontline of the human immune system against free radicals and they are of high importance for the human health. Methods: In order to determine antioxidant activities, the amount of phenols, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid of 2 grapesÃ varieties ("white seedless" and "red seedless" as two famous verities of Qazvin's grapes) have been studied with cyclic voltammetry including, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteo reagent at room and refrigerator temperature, before and after pasteurization process. Results: The results of this study has shown that the two verities of grapes did not have a meaningful difference in total antioxidant concentration; and cyclic voltammetry method has been more or less able to define the type of antioxidant according to the results of this study. Moreover, the two types of grapes had a significant difference in concentration of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin so that concentration of ascorbic acid in white grape juice in room temperature was 53ppm while at the same situation it was 24ppm in red grape juice.
Keywords: Grape, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic acid, DPPH, Cyclic voltammetry
AbstractObjective: The growing resistance of different bacteria to antibiotic chemical drugs have become the global issue. This investigation is the first study of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos. The current research was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of essential oils and hydroalcoholic extract extracted from aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos, native species. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. was assessed by the GC and GC/MS analysis. Twentynine different compounds, constituting 86.61% of the oil, were recorded, among which the major compounds were Â·-Pinene (15.5%), Linalool (11.7%), Sandaracopimaradiene (5.9%) and Safranal (8.8%). The invitro antibacterial activity of the extracted essential oil was evaluated against some Gram positive and negative bacteria. Results: According to the obtained results from the current research, the essential oil of Vaccinium arctostaphylos showed the antibacterial activities against most of the bacteria tested, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumonia, contrasted to Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to the essential oil, the hydroalcoholic extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos did not display the antibacterial effects against the mentioned microorganisms.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Essential oil, Secondary metabolites
AbstractObjective: Estimation of genetic parameters for Kleiber ratio (KR) and genetic trends for pre-weaning weights of Arabi sheep has not been previously conducted. Methods: Data and pedigree information were collected at the Khuzestan Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Animal Science Research Station, located in southwest Iran, from 2001 to 2008. (Co)variance components and corresponding genetic parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood procedure by excluding or including maternal genetic or maternal permanent environmental effects. Six animal models were fitted to optimise the model KR from birth to weaning, which is defined as the ratio of growth rate and metabolic rate and can be utilized as an indirect selection for feed conversion. Moreover, three-trait analyses were performed using the most appropriate models obtained in single-trait analyses on the basis of Akaikeâ€™s information criterion. Results: Direct heritability (h2d) estimate of 0.11 was obtained and maternal permanent environmental effects (pe2) contributed 10% of the total phenotypic variation for KR. Genetic trends for weight at birth and weaning were obtained by regression of average breeding values, on birth year. Direct genetic trends were positive and significant (p < 0.05) for weight at birth and weaning (6 and 24 g per year, respectively). Genetic correlations among traits ranged from -0.52 to 0.89 and phenotypic correlations from - 0.21 to 0. 0.71. Conclusions: Results showed the importance of inclusion of maternal permanent environmental effects in designing appropriate breeding programs to obtain accurate estimates of genetic parameters, and it is sounded that KR is a recommended option in selection program.
Keywords: Kleiber ratio, Direct heritability, Direct genetic trend, Arabi sheep
AbstractObjective: In this study the efficacy of two agent of this biological control agent of corn stem borer in corn fields compared with common synthetic insecticides Endosolfan to find a suitable alternative for chemical control of pests in corn fields. Methods: In order to evaluate the efficiency of biocontrol agents of corn stem borer ,Ostrinia nubilalis, experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block by five treatments and four replication, including, Indoxacarb (Avant), Trichogramma wasps, Bacillus thuringiensis var: kurstaki, integration of Trichogramma sp. and Bt., and control as treatments number 1 to 5. In treatments with parasitoid release, four days after releasing the wasps, the number of parasitized eggs was recorded. In each plot, 20 plants were randomly selected for recording the number of the larval holes on corn stems. The number of damaged stems was recorded on the same number of corn plants before harvest. Statistically analysis of data was carried out by using MINITAB software. Results: In treated plots by egg parasitoid wasp, the range of egg parasitism was 10 to 28 percent. The number of larval holes was 1.05, 1.30, 1.55, 1.38, and 2.04 per plant in treatments number 1, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. There was significant difference among the treatments considering the number of larval holes. The number of damaged stem in treatments number 1, 3, 4, and 5 were 0.17, 0.59, 0.98, 0.80 and 1.60 per plant, respectively. There was significant difference among the treatments considering the number of damaged stems. Despite this, there was no significant difference among biological control treatments in the number of larval holes and number of damaged stems. The achieved results from present study were revealed that the efficiency of the egg parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma sp. is lower than examined Bt.
Keywords: Integrated pest, management, Ostrinia nubilalis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichogramma pintoii
AbstractObjective: Returning crop residue to the soil exerts favorable effects on physical and chemical properties of soil. In fact, the plant residues can affect soil conditions such as pH and important role in soil fertility and cycling of elements in the soil may have. In addition to the role of the organic matter from decomposition of crop residue in increasing the concentration of micronutrients in soil solution is very important. Present research was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of the kind of crop residues: sunflower (Helianthus annnus L. cv. Allstar), sudan grass (Sorghum bicolor L. cv. Speed Feed), trifolium (Trifolium pretense L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Koseh-e-Isfahan), with control on chemical properties of soil and effect on bioavailable of copper. Methods: In this study complete randomized block field experiment, consisting of 3 replications and 5 treatments. After 3 weeks, increasing crop residues, soil samples collected and were used to measure some properties of soil and concentration of Cu in soil. Results: Results showed that crop residues significantly decreased soil pH and the largest increase was observed for Trifolium treatment. EC significantly increased by affected crop residues application. The crop residues significant increased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). the largest effect was dependent for Trifolium treatment. The crop residues significant increased the concentration of DTPAextractable Cu. The highest effect was obtained for Trifolium treatment. Therefore, Trifolium residues application decreased the amount of soil pH and consequent increase of DOC which in turn elevated the concentration of DTPA- extractable Cu. Trifolium was the most effective in increasing the phytoavailability of Cu in soil.
Keywords: Crop residues, Soil properties, Dissolved organic, Carbon, Phytoavailability
AbstractMolecular farming, or bio-pharming, has recently received much of attention for production of valuable recombinant proteins, with a few already being marketed. The use of whole plants for synthesis of pharmaceutical proteins offers various advantages in economy, scalability and safety over conventional production systems. GM plants are suitable for the inexpensive production of large amounts of functional, recombinant macromolecules, such as blood substitutes, vaccines, anti-cancer antibodies, plasma proteins, enzymes, cytokines and growth factors, and the expressed proteins, ranging from the smallest antigen-binding domains, to full-length, and even multi-meric proteins, are almost comparable to their mammalian counterparts. Delivery of a biopharmaceutical product by direct ingestion of the modified food crops removes the need for purification. Such biopharmaceuticals and edible vaccines can be stored and distributed as seeds, tubers, or fruits, making immunization programs in developing countries potentially cheaper and easier. It is anticipated that this technology has the potential to greatly benefit human health by making safe recombinant pharmaceuticals widely available. Here, we discuss facts, recent developments and perspectives of this field in detail.
Keywords: Biopharm crops, Transplastomic, Passive, immunotherapy, Plant bioreactors
AbstractObjective: The world is currently facing with various problems including water and soil pollution as well as a major threat to the health of the citizens due to the advancement at human civilization, technology development, pesticides and chemical fertilizers application, the increasing exploitation of natural resources by the agricultural sector and the increasing usage of fossil energy. Therefore, the aim of this study is evaluation of citizensÃ attitude towards water and soil pollution and the measurement of their different approach regarding to this environmental issue. Methods: Using the quantitative research method and questionnaires, this research sampled 150 people living in Khayyam and Tabarsi areas as well as 70 farmers from the outskirts of Mashhad (Jagharq, Ferdow,Torghabeh) to assess public awareness about the contamination of water and soil. Results: The results of this study show that most of farmers have little knowledge about soil contamination while residents of Khayam and Tabarsi areas have considerable information about status of their water. Moreover, most of the studied people believe that education and culture can be an effective method for water conservation and quality improvement which can act more effectively compared to fine and other methods. It also was found that education and communication with information sources and communication have effective role in farmerÃs attitude towards agriculture innovation such as organic farming. This shows the importance of education and agricultural extension system as the trustee training in the field of agriculture.
Keywords: Environmental, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Citizens attitude, Education
AbstractObjective: Tyrosinase as the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involves in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. A variety of dermatological disorders, come up from an unnecessary level of epidermal pigmentation. Plants are low-cost and rich sources of active compounds. Methods: More than seventy native plants collected from the central region of Kurdistan province collected. Inhibitory effect of hexane extracts from aerial parts of them was tested on tyrosinase activity. All extracts were screened for their tyrosinase inhibitory activity at 1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 Âµg/ml concentrations. Assay method was based on Microplate spectrophotometric study of absorption in 492 nm, arbutin and kojic acid were used as positive controls. Results: Among the evaluated hexane extracts, only 10 cases showed more than 50% tyrosinase inhibitory activities, including Gundelia Tourneforti L., Astragalus vegetus Bunge, Vicia hyrcanica Fisch. & C.A. Mey, Campanula involucrate Auch.ex DC, Isatis cappadocica Desv, Sanguisorba minor Scop., Eremostachys laevigata Bunge, Ballota nigra L., Aristolochia bottae Jaub.&Spach, Astragalus caryolobus Bge, and among them Gundelia Tournefortii L. L., showed considerable inhibition with IC50 of 0.173 Âµg/ml. These results suggest that the most effective plant extracts, especially that of Gundelia Tourneforti L. be worthy of further investigation.
Keywords: Tyrosinase, Hexane extract, Inhibition, Gundelia Tourneforti L.
AbstractObjective: The aim of this study was to determine the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal or bactericidal concentration (MFC, MBC) of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assafoetida on the growth of food spoilage microbes of bacteria, yeasts and fungal and investigation of the most sensitive of them to oleo-gum resin of these plant. Methods: In this study oleo-gum resin of F.assafoetida were dissolved in sterile distilled water and then its antimicrobial effects was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using micro-dilution method. Results: Results of these research showed that MIC and MBC values of oleo-gum resin on B.subtilis and E.coli were 1562.5 and >100000 Âµg/ml respectively, which were more than MIC and MBC values of S. aureus. Among tested yeasts, C.albicans showed more resistance than the S.cereviciae. Also MIC value of A.parasiticus (390.6 Âµg/ml) was less than A.flavus (781.3 Âµg/ml). Results of the present study indicates that oleo-gum resin of F.assafoetida has significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity, which strengthens its potential use as essential antimicrobial source in the near future.
Keywords: Ferula assafoetida, Food safety, Antimicrobial, Oleo gum resin
AbstractObjective: In order to investigate effects of different concentrations of poly amines Sprimidin and Putrescine on germination of Arg cultivar under salinity stress. Methods: This experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with four replicates in agronomy and plant breeding laboratory, Agricultural department, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch in spring of 2014. First factor was four levels of salinity including S1: 3.87, S2: 5.95, S3: 10.25 and S4: 12.87 ds/m and the second factor was three levels of poly amines including H0: control (not application of poly amines), H1: Putrescine 2.5 m/mol and H2: Sprimidin 5 mmol/L. coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, coleoptile, cleorhiza and seedling dry weight, Tissue water content (TWC), germination percent and number of damaged seeds were measured. Results: Analysis of variance showed that coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza dry weight affected by salinity and hormone levels at 1% of probability level. There was no significant difference among other treatments for other properties. Results of this experiment indicated that following increasing salinity, sever reduction in germination-dependent properties were observed.
Keywords: Pishtaz, Germination, Sprimidin, Putrescine, Salinity
AbstractObjective: Potato is the fourth important food crop after wheat, rice and maize. Shrinkage of food materials has a negative consequence on the quality of the dehydrated product. The main objective pursued in this paper is to investigate the shrinkage amount of potato slices during drying process using vacuum-infrared method. Methods: In this work, the effect of the infrared radiation powers (100, 150 and 200 Watt) and absolute pressure levels (20, 80, 140, 760 mmHg) at different thickness (1, 2 and 3 mm) on bulk volumetric shrinkage were investigated. Results: Data analysis showed that shrinkage percentage decreased with decrease of sample thickness and increase of infrared power. It was found that either thickness or infrared power had any significant effects (P < 0.01) on shrinkage of potato slices in this drying system. The regression model is a three-variable linear that Coefficient of determination is 0.532 and implies that the model can explain 53.2 % of the volume ratio changes.
Keywords: Potato, Drying, Vacuum, Infrared radiation, Shrinkage
AbstractObjective: Yield components and genetic contribution have the most important in final yield and breeding programs of crop plants. For this purpose, 20 varieties of grapevines with Russia origin were evaluated in Urmia and Takestan research station (under full irrigation and drought stress). Methods: Twenty grapevine genotypes were evaluated in Urmia and Takestan research station (under full irrigation and drought stress) in randomized complete blocks design with three replications and three plants in each plot. Number of cluster per plant, Number of berry per cluster, berry weight and yield of each plants were recorded. Compound and logarithmic analysis of variance, variance of genetic components and environmental interactions were presented by multiplicative three environmental and genotypic elements. Results: Results indicated that number of cluster per plant had the highest genetic contribution in final yield and also had the most sensitivity and variation in different environments. Direct effect of number of cluster per plant in final yield was higher than other studied traits. V3 value was higher than V2 and V2 was higher than V1, therefore sequence of manifestation of yield components were number of cluster per plant, number of berry per cluster and berry weight, respectively. Environmental components of interactions were indicated that absolute value of r1 was higher than r2 and r3. Conclusion: These results indicated that number of cluster per plant has higher sensitivity than the other main yield components in different environments.
Keywords: Path analysis, Grapevine, Logarithmic analysis, Yield stability
AbstractObjective: The usage of pesticides has increased during the recent years. One the other hand, presence of harmful pesticides residue in rice and other food has caused a great concern among the consumers. Therefore, it is important to develop some pragmatic procedures to increase the food safety along with the reduction in consumption of pesticide residues. Methods: A gas chromatograph with electron capture detector was used to determine of residue of butachlor herbicide and diazinon insecticide in washed white rice, steeped white rice, cooked white rice to abkesh cooking method. The method consist of: 1- preparation calibration standards, 2- draw calibration curve, 3- Samples preparation 4- liquid phase extraction, 5- clean up, 6- analysis with GC electron capture. Results: The average percent of loss of the butachlor herbicide in washed white rice, steeped white rice, abkesh white rice were 69.99% , 81.00% , 90.73% and 66.22% , 72.67% , 88.90% for diazinon insecticide, respectively. The results obtained from effect of processes on the residual contents of butachlor herbicide in white rice indicated that the highest and lowest residual contents of pesticides in white rice were related to control treatment and abkesh cooking treatment, respectively. Conclusions: The results of present study proved that rice processing treatments such as washing, steeping, and cooking lead to a significant reduction of pesticidesÃ residue. Therefore, more process treatments, caused more reduction pesticides residue in white rice treatments.
Keywords: Pesticides residue, Washed white rice, Steeped white rice, Cooked white rice, GC/ECD
AbstractObjective: In this survey, we have checked the effects of natural (red bell pepper and tomato) and synthetic (astaxanthin and â€š-carotene) pigments on bloods factors of Flower horn (Cichlasoma sp.). Methods: Five treatments (three replicates/treatment) were employed. Fishes were separated in fifteen equal groups and were fed for eight weeks with diets containing10 g kgÃ±1 red bell pepper and tomato and 100 mg kg-1 astaxanthin and â€š-carotene. At the end of trial blood samples were taken from 5 fish that caught randomize by cutting the caudal stem. Results: Results of blood factors showed there is significant differences between WBCs, RBCs, Hb, HCT and Lymphocytes between treatments (p<0.05). The best result observed in treatment fed with red bell pepper. Between The factors of Monocytes and Neutrophils, there was no significant difference between treatments (p>0.05). The results showed that the use of red bell pepper in diets for Flower horn is effective and profitable in its ration.
Keywords: Pigment, Blood parameter, Astaxanthin, ‚-carotene, Flower horn fish